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3.  Sharp/Tuneable UVC Selectivity and Extreme Solar Blindness in Nominally Undoped Ga2O3 MSM Photodetectors Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition
D. J. Rogers, A. Courtois, F. H. Teherani, V. E. Sandana, P. Bove, X. Arrateig, L. Damé, P. Maso, M. Meftah, W. El Huni, Y. Sama, H. Bouhnane, S. Gautier, A. Ougazzaden, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 11687, Oxide-based Materials and Devices XII, 116872D (24 March 2021); doi: 10.1117/12.2596194 ...[Visit Journal]
Ga2O3 layers were grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Optical transmission spectra were coherent with a bandgap engineering from 4.9 to 6.2 eV controlled via the growth conditions. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were mainly β-Ga2O3 (monoclinic) with strong (-201) orientation. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetectors based on gold/nickel Inter- Digitated-Transducer structures were fabricated by single-step negative photolithography. 240 nm peak response sensors gave over 2 orders-of-magnitude of separation between dark and light signal with state-of-the-art solar and visible rejection ratios ((I240 : I290) of > 3 x 105 and (I240 : I400) of > 2 x 106) and dark signals of <50 pA (at a bias of -5V). Spectral responsivities showed an exceptionally narrow linewidth (16.5 nm) and peak values exhibited a slightly superlinear increase with applied bias up to a value of 6.5 A/W (i.e. a quantum efficiency of > 3000%) at 20V bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Solar-blind photodetectors based on Ga2O3 and III-nitrides
Ryan McClintock; Alexandre Jaud; Lakshay Gautam; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 11288, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII, 1128803-- January 31, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the wide bandgap semiconductors for solar blind photo detectors (SBPD). This work presents our recent progress in the growth/doping of AlGaN and Ga2O3 thin films for solar blind detection applications. Both of these thin films grown are grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in the same Aixtron MOCVD system. Solar-blind metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors were fabricated with Ga2O3. Spectral responsivity studies of the MSM photodetectors revealed a peak at 261 nm and a maximum EQE of 41.7% for a −2.5 V bias. We have also demonstrated AlGaN based solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with a gain in excess of 57,000 at ~100 volts of reverse bias. This gain can be attributed to avalanche multiplication of the photogenerated carriers within the device. Both of these devices show the potential of wide bandgap semiconductors for solar blind photo detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  A lifetime of contributions to the world of semiconductors using the Czochralski invention
Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Volume 146, Pages 308-328-- December 1, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Over the course of my career, I have made numerous contributions related to semiconductor crystal growth and high performance optoelectronics over a vast region of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultraviolet to terahertz). In 2016 this cumulated in my receiving the Jan Czochralski Gold Medal award from the European Materials Research Society. This article is designed to provide a historical perspective and general overview of these scientific achievements, on the occasion of being honored by this award. These achievements would not have been possible without high quality crystalline substrates, and this article is written in honor of Jan Czochralski on the 100th anniversary of his important discovery. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.   Emerging materials for photonics
Miriam S. Vitiello, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 03510-- March 31, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Photonics plays a major role in all aspects of human life. It revolutionized science by addressing fundamental scientific questions and by enabling key functions in many interdisciplinary fields spanning from quantum technologies to information andcommunicationscience,andfrombiomedicalresearchtoindustrialprocessmonitoring and life entertainment. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Planar nBn type-II superlattice mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors using zinc ion-implantation
Arash Dehzangi, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, Jiakai Li, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 221103 https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0010273-- June 2, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
In this Letter, we report the demonstration of zinc ion-implantation to realize planar mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1−xSbx superlattices. At 77 K, the photodetectors exhibit a peak responsivity of 0.68 A/W at 3.35 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 23.5% under Vb = −80 mV, without anti-reflection coating; these photodetectors have a 100% cutoff wavelength of 4.28 μm. With an R0 × A value of 1.53 × 104 Ω cm2 and a dark current density of 1.23 × 10−6 A/cm2 under an applied bias of −80 mV at 77 K, the photodetectors exhibit a specific detectivity of 9.12 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High power continuous wave operation of single mode quantum cascade lasers up to 5 W spanning λ∼3.8-8.3 µm
Quanyong Lu, Steven Slivken, Donghai Wu, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Express Vol. 28, Issue 10, pp. 15181-15188-- May 4, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
In this work, we report high power continuous wave room-temperature operation single mode quantum cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range from 3.8 to 8.3 µm. Single mode robustness and dynamic range are enhanced by optimizing the distributed feedback grating coupling design and the facet coatings. High power single mode operation is secured by circumventing the over-coupling issue and spatial hole burning effect. Maximum single-facet continuous-wave output power of 5.1 W and wall plug efficiency of 16.6% is achieved at room temperature. Single mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and single-lobed far field with negligible beam steering is observed. The significantly increased power for single mode emission will boost the QCL applications in long-range free-space communication and remote sensing of hazardous chemicals. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Recent progress of quantum cascade laser research from 3 to 12 μm at the Center for Quantum Devices
MANIJEH RAZEGHI,* WENJIA ZHOU,STEVEN SLIVKEN,QUAN-YONG LU,DONGHAI WU, AND RYAN MCCLINTOC
Applied Optics Vol. 56, No. 31 -- October 10, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is becoming the leading laser source in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, which contains two atmospheric transmission windows and many molecular fingerprint absorption features. Since its first demonstration in 1994, the QCL has undergone tremendous development in terms of the output power, wall plug efficiency, wavelength coverage, tunability and beam quality. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have demonstrated high-power continuous wave operation of QCLs covering a wide wavelength range from 3 to 12 μm, with power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature. Recent research has resulted in power scaling in pulsed mode with up to 203 W output, electrically tunable QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral gain, broadly tunable on-chip beam-combined QCLs, QCL-based mid-IR frequency combs, and fundamental mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers. The developed QCLs will be the basis for a number of next-generation spectroscopy and sensing systems. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Power Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown on GaAs
Steven Slivken and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 2022, 9(4), 231 (COVER ARTICLE) ...[Visit Journal]
The motivation behind this work is to show that InP-based intersubband lasers with high power can be realized on substrates with significant lattice mismatch. This is a primary concern for the integration of mid-infrared active optoelectronic devices on low-cost photonic platforms, such as Si. As evidence, an InP-based mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure was grown on a GaAs substrate, which has a large (4%) lattice mismatch with respect to InP. Prior to laser core growth, a metamorphic buffer layer of InP was grown directly on a GaAs substrate to adjust the lattice constant. Wafer characterization data are given to establish general material characteristics. A simple fabrication procedure leads to lasers with high peak power (>14 W) at room temperature. These results are extremely promising for direct quantum cascade laser growth on Si substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Recent Advances in Room Temperature, High-Power Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources Based on Difference-Frequency Generation
Quanyong Lu and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics, 3, 42-- July 7, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the current status of high-performance, compact, THz sources based on intracavity nonlinear frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Significant performance improvements of our THz sources in the power and wall plug efficiency are achieved by systematic optimizing the device’s active region, waveguide, and chip bonding strategy. High THz power up to 1.9 mW and 0.014 mW for pulsed mode and continuous wave operations at room temperature are demonstrated, respectively. Even higher power and efficiency are envisioned based on enhancements in outcoupling efficiency and mid-IR performance. Our compact THz device with high power and wide tuning range is highly suitable for imaging, sensing, spectroscopy, medical diagnosis, and many other applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-quality MOCVD-grown heteroepitaxial gallium oxide growth on III-nitrides enabled by AlOx interlayer
Junhee Lee, Lakshay Gautam, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 123, 151902 (2023) ...[Visit Journal]
We report high-quality Ga2O3 grown on an AlGaN/AlN/Sapphire in a single growth run in the same Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition reactor with an AlOx interlayer at the Ga2O3/AlGaN interface. AlOx interlayer was found to enable the growth of single crystalline Ga2O3 on AlGaN in spite of the high lattice mismatch between the two material systems. The resulting nitride/oxide heterogenous heterostructures showed superior material qualities, which were characterized by structural, electrical, and optical characterization techniques. In particular, a significant enhancement of the electron mobility of the nitride/oxide heterogenous heterostructure is reported when compared to the individual electron mobilities of the Ga2O3 epilayer on the sapphire substrate and the AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on the sapphire substrate. This enhanced mobility marks a significant step in realizing the next generation of power electronic devices and transistors.
 
2.  Bias–selectable nBn dual–band long–/very long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattices
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, Sourav Adhikary, & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 3379-- June 13, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Type–II superlattices (T2SLs) are a class of artificial semiconductors that have demonstrated themselves as a viable candidate to compete with the state–of–the–art mercury–cadmium–telluride material system in the field of infrared detection and imaging. Within type–II superlattices, InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs have been shown to have a significantly longer minority carrier lifetime. However, demonstration of high–performance dual–band photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs in the long and very long wavelength infrared (LWIR & VLWIR) regimes remains challenging. We report the demonstration of high–performance bias–selectable dual–band long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on new InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattice design. Our design uses two different bandgap absorption regions separated by an electron barrier that blocks the transport of majority carriers to reduce the dark current density of the device. As the applied bias is varied, the device exhibits well–defined cut–off wavelengths of either ∼8.7 or ∼12.5 μm at 77 K. This bias–selectable dual–band photodetector is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for multi–spectral LWIR and VLWIR imaging and detection. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  RT-CW: widely tunable semiconductor THz QCL sources
M. Razeghi; Q. Y. Lu
Proceedings Volume 9934, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications -- September 26, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Distinctive position of Terahertz (THz) frequencies (ν~0.3 -10 THz) in the electromagnetic spectrum with their lower quantum energy compared to IR and higher frequency compared to microwave range allows for many potential applications unique to them. Especially in the security side of the THz sensing applications, the distinct absorption spectra of explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1–5 THz makes THz technology a competitive technique for detecting hidden explosives. A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range will greatly boost the THz applications for the diagnosis and detection of explosives. Here we present a new strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based intracavity DFG. Room temperature continuous wave operation with electrical frequency tuning range of 2.06-4.35 THz is demonstrated [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Mid-wavelength infrared high operating temperature pBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice
Donghai Wu, Jiakai Li, Arash Dehzangi, and Manijeh Razeghi
AIP Advances 10, 025018-- February 11, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
A high operating temperature mid-wavelength infrared pBn photodetector based on the type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice on a GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. At 150 K, the photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 1.48 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 47% at −50 mV applied bias under front-side illumination, with a 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.4 μm. With an R×A of 12,783 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 1.16×10−5A/cm² under −50 mV applied bias, the photodetector exhibits a specific detectivity of 7.1×1011 cm·Hz½/W. At 300 K, the photodetector exhibits a dark current density of 0.44 A/cm²and a quantum efficiency of 39%, resultingin a specific detectivity of 2.5×109 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Multi-band SWIR-MWIR-LWIR Type-II superlattice based infrared photodetector
Manijeh Razeghi, Arash Dehzangi, Jiakai Li
Results in Optics Volume 2, January 2021, 100054 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rio.2021.100054 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) has drawn a lot of attention since it was introduced in 1970, especially for infrared detection as a system of multi-interacting quantum wells. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process, which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). As a pioneer in the field, center for quantum devices (CQD) has been involved in growth, design, characterization, and introduction of T2SL material system for infrared photodetection. In this review paper, we will present the latest development of bias-selectable multi-band infrared photodetectors at the CQD, based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb and InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattice. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Ga2O3 Metal-oxide-semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrate by MOCVD
Ji-Hyeon Park, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Semiconductor Science and Technology, Volume 34, Number 8-- June 26, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Si-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and fabricated into metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The Ga2O3 MOSFETs exhibited effective gate modulation of the drain current with a complete channel pinch-off for VG < −25 V, and the three-terminal off-state breakdown voltage was 390 V. The device shows a very low gate leakage current (~50 pA/mm), which led to a high on/off ratio of ~108. These transistor characteristics were stable from room temperature to 250 °C [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, Romain Chevallier, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 035502 -- February 13, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−5 A/cm², under −80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 Jones and a background–limited operating temperature of 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb double heterostructure
P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 9, p. 091112-1-- August 27, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Focal plane array fabrication requires a well passivated material that is resistant to aggressive processes. The authors report on the ability of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes to be more resilient than homojunctions diodes in improving sidewall resistivity through the use of various passivation techniques. The heterostructure consisting of two wide band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts and a low band gap active region (11 µm) exhibits an R0A averaging of 13·Ω cm2. The devices passivated with SiO2, Na2S and SiO2 or polyimide did not degrade compared to the unpassivated sample and the resistivity of the sidewalls increased to 47 kΩ·cm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
A. Haddadi, X.V. Suo, S. Adhikary, P. Dianat, R. Chevallier, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107 , 141104-- October 5, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ~1.8μm at 300K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R×A of 285 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 9.6×10-5 A/cm² under −50mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45×1010 cm·Hz½/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3×10-8 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66×1012 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Detectivity GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Grown on Si Substrates
J. Jiang, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 14 (3)-- March 1, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter, we report an improvement in the growth and the device performance of GaInAs-InP quantum well infrared photodetectors grown on Si substrates. Material growth techniques, like low-temperature nucleation layers and thick buffer layers were used to grow InP on Si. An in situ thermal cycle annealing technique was used to reduce the threading dislocation density in the InP-on-Si. Detector dark current was reduced 2 orders of magnitude by this method. Record high detectivity of 2.3 × 109 cm·Hz½·W-1 was obtained for QWIP-on-Si detectors in the 7-9 μm range at 77 K [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of Zn-Diffused Planar Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetector Based on Type-II Superlattice Grown by MBE
Rajendra K. Saroj, Van Hoang Nguyen, Steven Slivken, Gail J. Brown and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics ...[Visit Journal]
We report on a planar long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx type-II superlattice with zinc diffusion. The superlattice structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, followed by a post-growth Zinc diffusion process in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition reactor. The planar photodetectors showed a peak responsivity of 2.18 A/W, under an applied bias of −20 mV, with a corresponding quantum efficiency of 44.5%, without any anti-reflection coating, and had a 100% cut-off wavelength of 8.5 μm at 77 K temperature. These photodetectors exhibit a specific peak detectivity of 3.0×10^12 cm.Hz^1/2/W, with a dark current density of 1.5 × 10−5 A/cm2 and the differential-resistance-area product of ∼8.6 × 10−1 Ω.cm2, under an applied bias of −20 mV at 77 K. A comparative study between the planar and conventional mesa isolated photodetectors was also carried out. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  RT-CW: widely tunable semiconductor THz QCL sources
M. Razeghi; Q. Y. Lu
Proceedings Volume 9934, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications, 993406-1-- September 26, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Distinctive position of Terahertz (THz) frequencies (ν~0.3 -10 THz) in the electromagnetic spectrum with their lower quantum energy compared to IR and higher frequency compared to microwave range allows for many potential applications unique to them. Especially in the security side of the THz sensing applications, the distinct absorption spectra of explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1–5 THz makes THz technology a competitive technique for detecting hidden explosives. A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range will greatly boost the THz applications for the diagnosis and detection of explosives. Here we present a new strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based intracavity DFG. Room temperature continuous wave operation with electrical frequency tuning range of 2.06-4.35 THz is demonstrated [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Np. 8, p. 081106-1-- August 20, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated with surface gratingbased distributed feedback (DFB) mechanisms. It is found that an angled cavity incorporating a one dimensional DFB with grating lines parallel to the laser facet offers the simplest solution for single mode and diffraction limited emission in the facet normal direction. A room temperature single mode QCL with the highest output power for wavelengths longer than 10 micron is demonstrated. This structure could be applied to a wide range of laser structures for power scaling along with spectral and spatial beam control. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent progress of widely tunable, CW THz sources based QCLs at room temperature
Manijeh Razeghi
Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 87-151-- December 7, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The THz spectral region is of significant interest to the scientific community, but is one of the hardest regions to access with conventional technology. A wide range of compelling new applications are initiating a new revolution in THz technology, especially with regard to the development of compact and versatile devices for THz emission and detection. In this article, recent advances with regard to III-V semiconductor optoelectronics are explored with emphasis on how these advances will lead to the next generation of THz component technology [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Monolithic Integration of GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrate
M. Erdtmann and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
Using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, we have grown GaInAs/InP QWIP structures on GaAs-coated Si substrate. First, the procedure to optimize the epitaxy of the InP buffer layer on Si substrate is given. Excellent crystallinity and a mirror-like surface morphology were obtained by using both a two-step growth process at the beginning of the InP buffer layer growth and several series of thermal cycle annealing throughout the InP buffer layer growth. Second, results of fabricated GaInAs/InP QWIPs on Si substrate are presented. At a temperature of 80 K, the peak response wavelength occurs at 7.4 μm. The responsivities of QWIPs on both Si and InP substrates with identical structures are equal up to biases of 1.5 V. At a bias of 3 V, the responsivity of the QWIPs on Si substrate is 1.0 A/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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