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9.  MOCVD grown β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors on sapphire
Ji-Hyeon Park , Ryan McClintock, Alexandre Jaud, Arash Dehzangi , Manijeh Razeghi
Applied Physics Express 12, 095503-- August 28, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We fabricated β-Ga2O3:Si metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on c-plane sapphire substrates which typically showed maximum drain current of 100 mA·mm−1. β-Ga2O3:Si thin films were realized on c-plane sapphire substrates through a combination of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and post-annealing. The MOSFET device presented excellent on/off drain current ratio of ∼1011 with very low gate leakage current, sharp pinch off behavior, and a breakdown voltage of 400 V at VG = −40 V. The growth and fabrication of β-Ga2O3:Si MOSFETs on c-plane sapphire is valuable to its demonstration of the great potential for future high-power electronic devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, Romain Chevallier, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 035502 -- February 13, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−5 A/cm², under −80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 Jones and a background–limited operating temperature of 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Type-II superlattice-based heterojunction phototransistors for high speed applications
Jiakai Li, Arash Dehzangi, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, Manijeh Razeghi
Infrared Physics and Technology 108, 1033502-- May 2, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
In this study, high speed performance of heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with 30 nm base thickness and 50% cut-off wavelength of 2.0 μm at room temperature are demonstrated. We studied the relationship between -3 dB cut-off frequency of these HPT versus mesa size, applied bias, and collector layer thickness. For 8 μm diameter circular mesas HPT devices with a 0.5 μm collector layer, under 20 V applied bias voltage, we achieved a -3 dB cut-off frequency of 2.8 GHz. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  High power, high wall-plug efficiency, high reliability, continuous-wave operation quantum cascade lasers at Center for Quantum Devices
Razeghi, Manijeh
SPIE Proceedings Volume 11296, Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology II; 112961C-- February 25, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
Since the demonstration of the first quantum cascade laser (QCL) in 1997, QCLs have undergone considerable developments in output power, wall plug efficiency (WPE), beam quality, wavelength coverage and tunability. Among them, many world-class breakthroughs were achieved at the Center for Quantum Device at Northwestern University. In this paper, we will discuss the recent progress of our research and present the main contributions of the Center for Quantum Devices to the QCL family on high power, high wall-plug efficiency (WPE), continuous-wave (CW) and room temperature operation lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Sb-based third generation at Center for Quantum Devices
Razeghi, Manijeh
SPIE Proceedings Volume 11407, Infrared Technology and Applications XLVI; 114070T-- April 23, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
Sb-based III-V semiconductors are a promising alternative to HgCdTe. They can be produced with a similar bandgap to HgCdTe, but take advantage of the strong bonding between group III and group V elements which leads to very stable materials, good radiation hardness, and high uniformity. In this paper, we will discuss the recent progress of our research and present the main contributions of the Center for Quantum Devices to the Sb-based 3th generation imagers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Fabrication of 12 µm pixel-pitch 1280 × 1024 extended short wavelength infrared focal plane array using heterojunction type-II superlattice-based photodetector
Arash Dehzangi , Abbas Haddadi, Romain Chevallier, Yiyun Zhang and Manijeh Razegh
Semicond. Sci. Technol. 34, 03LT01-- February 4, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We present an initial demonstration of a 1280 × 1024 extended short-wavelength infrared focal plane array (FPA) imager with 12μm pixel-pitch based on type–II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattice heterojunction photodetectors, with a novel bandstructure-engineered photo-generated carrier extractor as the window layer in the hetero structure to efficiently extract the photo-generated carriers. This heterostructure with a larger bandgap top window/contact layer leads to the device having lower dark current density compared to conventional pn junction devices. The large format FPA was fabricated with 12 μm pixel-pitch using a developed fabrication process. Test pixels fabricated separately exhibit 100% cut–off wavelengths of ∼2.22, ∼2.34μm, and ∼2.45μm at 150, 200K, and 300K. The test devices achieve saturated quantum efficiency values under zero bias of 54.3% and 68.4% at 150 and 300K, under back-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. At 150K, these photodetectors exhibit dark current density of 1.63 × 10−7 A·cm−2 under −20mV applied bias providing a specific detectivity of 1.01 × 1011 cm ·Hz½/W at 1.9μm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Antimonite-based gap-engineered type-II superlattice materials grown by MBE and MOCVD for the third generation of infrared imagers
Manijeh Razeghi, Arash Dehzangi, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, Yiyun Zhang, Quentin Durlin, Jiakai Li, Fanfei Meng
Proc. SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing,Infrared Technology and Applications XLV, 110020G -- May 7, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Third generation of infrared imagers demand performances for higher detectivity, higher operating temperature, higher resolution, and multi-color detection all accomplished with better yield and lower manufacturing costs. Antimonidebased gap-engineered Type-II superlattices (T2SLs) material system is considered as a potential alternative for MercuryCadmium-Telluride (HgCdTe) technology in all different infrared detection regimes from short to very long wavelengths for the third generation of infrared imagers. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. We will present the most recent research results on Antimonide-based gap-engineered Type-II superlattices, such as highperformance dual-band SWIR/MWIR photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for different infrared regimes, toward the third generation of infrared imaging systems at the Center for Zuantum Devices. Comparing metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), vs molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 22% wall plug efficiency in continuous-wave operation
F. Wang, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, and M. Razeghi
Optics Express Vol. 28, Issue 12, pp. 17532-17538-- June 8, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the demonstration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with improved efficiency emitting at a wavelength of 4.9 µm in pulsed and continuous-wave(CW)operation. Based on an established design and guided by simulation, the number of QCL-emitting stages is increased in order to realize a 29.3% wall plug efficiency (WPE) in pulsed operation at room temperature. With proper fabrication and packaging, a 5-mm-long, 8-µm-wide QCL with a buried ridge waveguide is capable of 22% CW WPE and 5.6 W CW output power at room temperature. This corresponds to an extremely high optical density at the output facet of ∼35 MW/cm², without any damage. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Demonstration of mid-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
Donghai Wu, Arash Dehzangi, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 061102-- August 6, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We report design, growth, and characterization of midwavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on a type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice on a GaSb substrate grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. An InAs/AlAs1-ySby/InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice design was used as the large bandgap electron barrier in the photodetectors. At 150 K, the photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 1.23 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 41% at an applied bias voltage of −100 mV under front-side illumination, with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 4.6 μm. With an R × A of 356 Ω·cm2 and a dark current density of 1.6 × 10−4 A/cm2 under an applied bias of −100 mV at 150 K, the photodetector exhibits a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A. M. Hoang, R. Chevallier, S. Adhikary, A. Dehzangi
Proc. SPIE 9819, Infrared Technology and Applications XLII, 981909-- May 20, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
We report InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattice base photodetector as high performance long-wavelength infrared nBn device grown on GaSb substrate. The device has 6 μm-thick absorption region, and shows optical performance with a peak responsivity of 4.47 A/W at 7.9 μm, which is corresponding to the quantum efficiency of 54% at a bias voltage of negative 90 mV, where no anti-reflection coating was used for front-side illumination. At 77K, the photodetector’s 50% cut-off wavelength was ~10 μm. The device shows the detectivity of 2.8x1011 cm•Hz½/W at 77 K, where RxA and dark current density were 119 Ω•cm² and 4.4x10-4 A/cm² , respectively, under -90 mV applied bias voltage [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice barrier
A. Haddadi, R. Chevallier, A. Dehzangi, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 110, 101104-- March 8, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate have been demonstrated. An AlAsSb/GaSb H-structure superlattice design was used as the large-bandgap electron-barrier in these photodetectors. The photodetector is designed to have a 100% cut-off wavelength of ∼2.8 μm at 300 K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.65 A/W at 1.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 41% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 78 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−3 A/cm² under −400 mV applied bias at 300 K, the nBn photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 1.51 × 1010 Jones. At 150 K, the photodetector exhibited a dark current density of 9.5 × 10−9 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 50%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.12 × 1013 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Surface Emitting, Tunable, Mid-Infrared Laser with High Output Power and Stable Output Beam
Steven Slivken, Donghai Wu & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 549-- January 24, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
A reflective outcoupler is demonstrated which can allow for stable surface emission from a quantum cascade laser and has potential for cost-effective wafer-scale manufacturing. This outcoupler is integrated with an amplified, electrically tunable laser architecture to demonstrate high power surface emission at a wavelength near 4.9 μm. Single mode peak power up to 6.7 W is demonstrated with >6 W available over a 90 cm−1 (215 nm) spectral range. A high quality output beam is realized with a simple, single-layer, anti-reflective coating. The beam shape and profile are shown to be independent of wavelength. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Type-II superlattice-based extended short-wavelength infrared focal plane array with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice etch-stop layer to allow near-visible light detection
Romain Chevallier, Arash Dehzangi, Abbas Haddadi, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Letters Vol. 42, Iss. 21, pp. 4299-4302-- October 17, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
A versatile infrared imager capable of imaging the near-visible to the extended short-wavelength infrared (e-SWIR) is demonstrated using e-SWIR InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodiodes. A bi-layer etch-stop scheme consisting of bulk InAs0.91Sb0.09 and AlAs0.1Sb0.9/GaSb superlattice layers is introduced for substrate removal from the hybridized back-side illuminated photodetectors. The implementation of this new technique on an e-SWIR focal plane array results in a significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1.8–0.8μm spectral region, while maintaining a high QE at wavelengths longer than 1.8μm. Test pixels exhibit 100% cutoff wavelengths of ∼2.1 and ∼2.25μm at 150 and 300K, respectively. They achieve saturated QE values of 56% and 68% at 150 and 300K, respectively, under back-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. At 150K, the photodetectors (27μm×27μm area) exhibit a dark current density of 4.7×10−7  A/cm2 under a −50  mV applied bias providing a specific detectivity of 1.77×1012  cm·Hz1/2/W. At 300K, the dark current density reaches 6.6×10−2  A/cm2 under −50 mV bias, providing a specific detectivity of 5.17×109  cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength Type-II superlattice focal plane array
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 48, No. 2, p. 221-228-- February 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Electrical and radiometric characterization results of a high-operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared type-II superlattice focal plane array are described. It demonstrates excellent quantum efficiency operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively. The external quantum efficiency is 81% without any antireflective coating. The dynamic range is 37 dB at 81 K and increases to 39 dB at 68 K operating temperature. The focal plane array has noise equivalent temperature difference as low as 27 mK and 19 mK at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively, using f/2 optics and an integration time of 0.13 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Ga2O3 Metal-oxide-semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Sapphire Substrate by MOCVD
Ji-Hyeon Park, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Semiconductor Science and Technology, Volume 34, Number 8-- June 26, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Si-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and fabricated into metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The Ga2O3 MOSFETs exhibited effective gate modulation of the drain current with a complete channel pinch-off for VG < −25 V, and the three-terminal off-state breakdown voltage was 390 V. The device shows a very low gate leakage current (~50 pA/mm), which led to a high on/off ratio of ~108. These transistor characteristics were stable from room temperature to 250 °C [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High quantum efficiency mid-wavelength infrared type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice photodiodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
Donghai Wu , Quentin Durlin, Arash Dehzangi , Yiyun Zhang , and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 011104-- January 8, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of mid-wavelength infrared type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice photodiodes on GaSb substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. At 150 K, the 50% cut-off wavelength is 5.0 um, the dark current density is 3.3x10−4 A/cm2 under −20mV bias, and the peak responsivity is 1.76A/W corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 55% without anti-reflection coating. A specific detectivity of 1.2x1011cmHz1/2/W is achieved at 4.0 um under −20mV bias at 150 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High-speed free-space optical communications based on quantum cascade lasers and type-II superlattice detectors
Stephen M. Johnson; Emily Dial; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 11288, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII, 1128814-- January 31, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-space optical communications (FSOC) is a promising avenue for point-to-point, high-bandwidth, and high-security communication links. It has the potential to solve the “last mile” problem modern communication systems face, allowing for high-speed communication links without the expensive and expansive infrastructure required by fiber optic and wireless technologies 1 . Although commercial FSOC systems currently exist, due to their operation in the near infrared and short infrared ranges, they are necessarily limited by atmospheric absorption and scattering losses 2 . Mid-infrared (MWIR) wavelengths are desirable for free space communications systems because they have lower atmospheric scattering losses compared to near-infrared communication links. This leads to increased range and link uptimes. Since this portion of the EM spectrum is unlicensed, link establishment can be implemented quickly. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) are ideal FSOC transmitters because their emission wavelength is adjustable to MWIR 3 . Compared to the typical VCSEL and laser diodes used in commercial NIR and SWIR FSOC systems, however, they require increased threshold and modulation currents 4 . Receivers based on type-II superlattice (T2SL) detectors are desired in FSOC for their low dark current, high temperature operation, and band gap tunable to MWIR 5. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of a high-speed FSOC system using a QCL and a T2SL detector. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Investigation of surface leakage reduction for small pitch shortwave infrared photodetectors
Arash Dehzangi, Quentin Durlin, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, Manijeh Razeghi
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 34(6), 06LT01-- May 25, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Different passivation techniques are investigated for reducing leakage current in small pixel (down to 9 μm) heterostructure photodetectors designed for the short-wavelength infrared range. Process evaluation test chips were fabricated using the same process as for focal plane arrays. Arrays of small photodetectors were electrically characterized under dark conditions from 150 K to room temperature. In order to evaluate the leakage current, we studied the relation between the inverse of dynamic resistance at −20 mV and zero bias and perimeter over area P/A ratio as the pixel size is scaled down. At 150 K, leakage current arising from the perimeter dominates while bulk leakage dominates at room temperature. We find that in shortwave devices directly underfilling hybridized devices with a thermoset epoxy resin without first doing any additional passivation/protection after etching gives the lowest leakage with a surface resistance of 4.2 × 109 and 8.9 × 103 Ω· cm−1 at 150 and 300 K, for −20 mV of bias voltage, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
A. Haddadi , G. Chen , R. Chevallier , A. M. Hoang , and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 121104 (2014)-- September 22, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
High performance long-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate have been demonstrated. The photodetector's 50% cut-off wavelength was ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector with a 6 μm-thick absorption region exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.47 A/W at 7.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 54% at −90 mV bias voltage under front-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 119 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 4.4 × 10−4 A/cm² under −90 mV applied bias at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 2.8 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2·W-1. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with 5.6 W output power at room temperature and 41% wall-plug efficiency in cryogenic operation
F. Wang, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
AIP Advances 10, 055120-- May 19, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we report a post-polishing technique to achieve nearly complete surface planarization for the buried ridge regrowth processing of quantum cascade lasers. The planarized device geometry improves the thermal conduction and reliability and, most importantly, enhances the power and efficiency in continuous wave operation. With this technique, we demonstrate a high continuous wave wall-plug efficiency of an InP-based quantum cascade laser reaching ∼41% with an output power of ∼12 W from a single facet operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. At room temperature, the continuous wave output power exceeds the previous record, reaching ∼5.6 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlatticebased heterojunction phototransistors: back to the future
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, Thomas Yang, Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV- Page-1054004-1-- January 26, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Most of reported HPTs in literatures are based on InGaAs compounds that cover NIR spectral region. However, InGaAs compounds provide limited cut-off wavelength tunability. In contrast, type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are a developing new material system with intrinsic advantages such as great flexibility in bandgap engineering, low growth and manufacturing cost, high-uniformity, auger recombination suppression, and high carrier effective mass that are becoming an attractive candidate for infrared detection and imaging from short-wavelength infrared to very long wavelength infrared regime. We present the recent advancements in T2SL-based heterojunction phototransistors in e– SWIR, MWIR and LWIR spectral ranges. A mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistor based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. Then, we present the effect of vertical scaling on the optical and electrical performance of heterojunction phototransistors, where the performance of devices with different base width was compared as the base was scaled from 60 down to 40 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices: A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, P.R. Bijjam, and R. McClintock
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2014-- August 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattices (T2SLs), a system of interacting multiquantum wells,were introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention, especially for infrared detection and imaging. In recent years, the T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material growth quality, device structure design, and device fabrication techniques that have elevated the performance of T2SL-based photodetectors and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) to a level comparable to state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection and imaging, such as mercury cadmium telluride compounds. We present the current status of T2SL-based photodetectors and FPAs for imaging in different infrared regimes, from short wavelength to very long wavelength, and dual-band infrared detection and imaging, as well as the future outlook for this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Overview of Quantum Cascade Laser Research at the Center for Quantum Devices
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000B-1-8.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Over the past several years, our group has endeavored to develop high power quantum cascade lasers for a variety of remote and high sensitivity infrared applications. The systematic optimization of laser performance has allowed for demonstration of high power, continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature. In the past year alone, the efficiency and power of our short wavelength lasers (~4.8 µm) has doubled. In continuous wave at room temperature, we have now separately demonstrated ~10% wallplug efficiency and ~700 mW of output power. Up to now, we have been able to show that room temperature continuous wave operation with > 100 mW output power in the 3.8 < λ < 11.5 µm wavelength range is possible. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Demonstration of shortwavelength infrared photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 211101-1-- May 21, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the feasibility of the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice photodiodes operating at the short wavelength infrared regime below 3  μm. An n-i-p type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb photodiode was grown with a designed cut-off wavelength of 2 μm on a GaSb substrate. At 150  K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 5.6 × 10−8 A/cm² and a front-side-illuminated quantum efficiency of 40.3%, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 1.0 × 1013 Jones. The uncooled photodiode showed a dark current density of 2.2 × 10−3 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 41.5%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.7 × 1010 Jones [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 181102-1-- May 3, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Using the recently proposed shallow-well design, we demonstrate InP based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.9 μm with 27% and 21% wall plug efficiencies in room temperature (298 K) pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operations, respectively. The laser core consists of 40 QCL-stages. The highest cw efficiency is obtained from a buried-ridge device with a ridge width of 8 μm and a cavity length of 5 mm. The front and back facets are antireflection and high-reflection coated, respectively. The maximum single facet cw power at room temperature amounts to 5.1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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