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4.  Bias–selectable nBn dual–band long–/very long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattices
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, Sourav Adhikary, & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 3379-- June 13, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Type–II superlattices (T2SLs) are a class of artificial semiconductors that have demonstrated themselves as a viable candidate to compete with the state–of–the–art mercury–cadmium–telluride material system in the field of infrared detection and imaging. Within type–II superlattices, InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs have been shown to have a significantly longer minority carrier lifetime. However, demonstration of high–performance dual–band photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs in the long and very long wavelength infrared (LWIR & VLWIR) regimes remains challenging. We report the demonstration of high–performance bias–selectable dual–band long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on new InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattice design. Our design uses two different bandgap absorption regions separated by an electron barrier that blocks the transport of majority carriers to reduce the dark current density of the device. As the applied bias is varied, the device exhibits well–defined cut–off wavelengths of either ∼8.7 or ∼12.5 μm at 77 K. This bias–selectable dual–band photodetector is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for multi–spectral LWIR and VLWIR imaging and detection. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Geiger-Mode Operation of AlGaN Avalanche Photodiodes at 255 nm
Lakshay Gautam, Alexandre Guillaume Jaud, Junhee Lee, Gail J. Brown, Manijeh Razeghi
Published in: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics ( Volume: 57, Issue: 2, April 2021) ...[Visit Journal]
We report the Geiger mode operation of back-illuminated AlGaN avalanche photodiodes. The devices were fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination to leverage hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response was analyzed with a peak detection wavelength of 255 nm with an external quantum efficiency of ~14% at zero bias. Low-photon detection capabilities were demonstrated in devices with areas 25 μm×25 μm. Single photon detection efficiencies of ~5% were achieved. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Quantum cascade lasers that emit more light than heat
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. Kuboya, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
Nature Photonics, February 2010, Vol. 4, p. 99-102-- February 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
For any semiconductor lasers, the wall plug efficiency, that is, the portion of the injected electrical energy that can be converted into output optical energy, is one of the most important figures of merit. A device with a higher wall plug efficiency has a lower power demand and prolonged device lifetime due to its reduced self-heating. Since its invention, the power performance of the quantum cascade laser has improved tremendously. However, although the internal quantum efficiency can be engineered to be greater than 80% at low temperatures, the wall plug efficiency of a quantum cascade laser has never been demonstrated above 50% at any temperature. The best wall plug efficiency reported to date is 36% at 120 K. Here, we overcome the limiting factors using a single-well injector design and demonstrate 53% wall plug efficiency at 40 K with an emitting wavelength of 5 µm. In other words, we demonstrate a quantum cascade laser that produces more light than heat. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  On the performance and surface passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes for the very-long- wavelength infrared
A. Hood, M. Razeghi, E. Aifer, G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 87 (1)-- October 10, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate very-long-wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength (λc,50%) of 17 μm. We observed a zero-bias, peak Johnson noise-limited detectivity of 7.63×109 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K with a 90%-10% cutoff width of 17 meV, and quantum efficiency of 30%. Variable area diode zero-bias resistance-area product (R0A) measurements indicated that silicon dioxide passivation increased surface resistivity by nearly a factor of 5, over unpassivated photodiodes, and increased overall R0A uniformity. The bulk R0A at 77 K was found to be 0.08 Ω·cm2, with RA increasing more than twofold at 25 mV reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Inductively coupled plasma etching and processing techniques for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices infrared detectors toward high fill factor focal plane arrays
E.K. Huang, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0Z-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A challenge for Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors is to achieve high fill factor, high aspect ratio etching for third generation focal plane arrays (FPAs). Initially, we compare the morphological and electrical results of single element T2SL photodiodes after BCl3/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) dry etching. Using a Si3N4 hard mask, ICP-etched structures exemplify greater sidewall verticality and smoothness, which are essential toward the realization of high fill factor FPAs. ICP-etched single element devices with SiO2 passivation that are 9.3 µm in cutoff wavelength achieved vertical sidewalls of 7.7 µm in depth with a resistance area product at zero bias of greater than 1,000 Ω·cm2 and maximum differential resistance in excess of 10,000 Ω·cm2 at 77 K. By only modifying the etching technique in the fabrication steps, the ICP-etched photodiodes showed an order of magnitude decrease in their dark current densities in comparison to the ECR-etched devices. Finally, high aspect ratio etching is demonstrated on mutli-element arrays with 3 µm-wide trenches that are 11 µm deep. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser array
W. Zhou, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 181106-- May 4, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Dark current reduction in microjunction-based double electron barrier type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12617-- October 3, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Microjunction InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors with reduced dark current density were demonstrated. A double electron barrier design was employed to reduce both bulk and surface dark currents. The photodetectors exhibited low surface leakage after passivation with SiO2, allowing the use of very small size features without degradation of the dark current. Fabricating microjunction photodetectors (25 × 25 µm² diodes with 10 × 10 µm² microjunctions) in combination with the double electron barrier design results in a dark current density of 6.3 × 10−6 A/cm² at 77 K. The device has an 8 µm cut-off wavelength at 77 K and exhibits a quantum efficiency of 31% for a 2 µm-thick absorption region, which results in a specific detectivity value of 1.2 × 1012 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High-speed short wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type II superlattices
Jiakai Li; Arash Dehzangi; Donghai Wu; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 11288, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII, 1128813-- January 31, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
A two terminal short wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb on GaSb substrate are designed fabricated and presented. With the base thickness of 40 nm, the device exhibited 100% cut-off wavelengths of ~2.3 μm at 300K. The saturated peak responsivity value is of 325.5 A/W at 300K, under front-side illumination without any anti-reflection coating. A saturated optical gain at 300K was 215 a saturated dark current shot noise limited specific detectivity of 4.9×1011 cm·Hz½/W at 300 K was measured. Similar heterojunction phototransistor structure was grown and fabricated with different method of processing for high speed testing. For 80 μm diameter circular diode size under 20 V applied reverse bias, a −3 dB cut-off frequency of 1.0 GHz was achieved, which showed the potential of type-II superlattice based heterojunction phototransistors to be used for high speed detection. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Highly Conductive Co-Doped Ga2O3Si-In Grown by MOCVD
Junhee Lee, Honghyuk Kim, Lakshay Gautam and Manijeh Razeghi
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030287 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a highly conductive gallium oxide doped with both silicon and indium grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. From a superlattice structure of indium oxide and gallium oxide doped with silicon, we obtained a highly conductive material with an electron hall mobility up to 150 cm2/V·s with the carrier concentration near 2 × 1017 cm−3. However, if not doped with silicon, both Ga2O3:In and Ga2O3 are highly resistive. Optical and structural characterization techniques such as X-ray, transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence, reveal no significant incorporation of indium into the superlattice materials, which suggests the indium plays a role of a surfactant passivating electron trapping defect levels. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent progress of quantum cascade laser research from 3 to 12 μm at the Center for Quantum Devices
MANIJEH RAZEGHI,* WENJIA ZHOU,STEVEN SLIVKEN,QUAN-YONG LU,DONGHAI WU, AND RYAN MCCLINTOC
Applied Optics Vol. 56, No. 31 -- October 10, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is becoming the leading laser source in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, which contains two atmospheric transmission windows and many molecular fingerprint absorption features. Since its first demonstration in 1994, the QCL has undergone tremendous development in terms of the output power, wall plug efficiency, wavelength coverage, tunability and beam quality. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have demonstrated high-power continuous wave operation of QCLs covering a wide wavelength range from 3 to 12 μm, with power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature. Recent research has resulted in power scaling in pulsed mode with up to 203 W output, electrically tunable QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral gain, broadly tunable on-chip beam-combined QCLs, QCL-based mid-IR frequency combs, and fundamental mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers. The developed QCLs will be the basis for a number of next-generation spectroscopy and sensing systems. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  First Demonstration of ~ 10 microns FPAs in InAs/GaSb SLS
M. Razeghi, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, R. McClintock, Y. Wei, E. Michel, V. Nathan and M. Tidrow
IEEE LEOS Newsletter 20 (5)-- October 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The concept of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was first brought by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki, et al. in the 1970s. There had been few studies on this material system until two decades later when reasonable quality material growth was made possible using molecular beam epitaxy. With the addition of cracker cells for the group V sources and optimizations of material growth conditions, the superlattice quality become significantly improved and the detectors made of these superlattice materials can meet the demand in some practical field applications. Especially in the LWIR regime, it provides a very promising alternative to HgCdTe for better material stability and uniformity, etc. We have developed the empirical tight binding model (ETBM) for precise determination of the superlattice bandgap. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Single-mode, high-power, midinfrared, quantum cascade laser phased arrays
Wenjia Zhou , Donghai Wu , Quan-Yong Lu, Steven Slivken & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 8:14866-- October 5, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate single-mode, 16-channel, optical phased arrays based on quantum cascade laser technology, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. The integrated device consists of a distributed feedback seed section, a highly-efficient tree array multi-mode interferometer power splitter, and a 16-channel amplifier array with a 4° angled facet termination. With a single layer Y2O3 coating, the angled facet reflectivity is estimated to be less than 0.1% for suppressing amplifier self-lasing. A peak output power of 30 W is achieved with an emission spectrum narrower than 11 nm and a side mode suppression ratio over 25 dB. Far field distribution measurement result indicates a uniform phase distribution across the array output. Using the same phased array architecture, we also demonstrate single-mode 3.8 μm QCL amplifier arrays with up to 20 W output power. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Room temperature operation of InxGa1-xSb/InAs type-II quantum well infrared photodetectors grown by MOCVD
D. H. Wu, Y. Y. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 111103-- March 14, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature operation of In0.5Ga0.5Sb/InAs type-II quantum well photodetectors on InAs substrate grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. At 300 K, the detector exhibits a dark current density of 0.12 A/cm2, peak responsivity of 0.72 A/W corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 23.3%, with calculated specific detectivity of 2.4×109 cm.Hz1/2/W at 3.81 μm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers
D. Heydari, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 106, 091105-- March 6, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm²·sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices
A. Haddadi, S. Adhikary, A. Dehzangi, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 109, 021107-- July 12, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
A mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistor based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. Near a wavelength of 4 μm saturated optical gains of 668 and 639 at 77 and 150 K, respectively, are demonstrated over a wide dynamic range. At 150 K, the unity optical gain collector dark current density and DC current gain are 1 × 10−3 A/cm² and 3710, respectively. This demonstrates the potential for use in high-speed applications. In addition, the phototransistor exhibits a specific detectivity value that is four times higher compared with a state-of-the-art type-II superlattice-based photodiode with a similar cut-off wavelength at 150 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Type-II ‘M’ Structure Photodiodes: An Alternative Material Design for Mid-Wave to Long Wavelength Infrared Regimes
B-M. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, V. Nathan, and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices IV, Vol. 6479, p. 64790S-1-10-- January 29, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
In this work, an AlSb-containing Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice, the so-called M-structure, is presented as a candidate for mid and long wavelength infrared detection devices. The effect of inserting an AlSb barrier in the GaSb layer is discussed and predicts many promising properties relevant to practical use. A good agreement between the theoretical calculation based on Empirical Tight Binding Method framework and experimental results is observed, showing the feasibility of the structure and its properties. A band gap engineering method without material stress constraint is proposed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Advances in mid-infrared detection and imaging: a key issues review
Manijeh Razeghi and Binh-Minh Nguyen
Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 (2014) 082401-- August 4, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
It has been over 200 years since people recognized the presence of infrared radiation, and developed methods to capture this signal. However, current material systems and technologies for infrared detections have not met the increasing demand for high performance infrared detectors/cameras, with each system having intrinsic drawbacks. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice has been recently considered as a promising candidate for the next generation of infrared detection and imaging. Type-II superlattice is a man-made crystal structure, consisting of multiple quantum wells placed next to each other in a controlled way such that adjacent quantum wells can interact. The interaction between multiple quantum wells offers an additional degree of freedom in tailoring the material's properties. Another advantage of type-II superlattice is the experimental benefit of inheriting previous research on material synthesis and device fabrication of bulk semiconductors. It is the combination of these two unique strengths of type-II superlattice—novel physics and easy manipulation—that has enabled unprecedented progress in recent years. In this review, we will describe historical development, and current status of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for advanced detection and imaging in the mid-infrared regime (λ = 3–5 µm). [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
Erdem Cicek, Ryan McClintock, Abbas Haddadi, William A. Gaviria Rojas, and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 50, Issue 8, p 591-595-- August 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on solar-blind ultraviolet, AlxGa1-x N- based,p-i-n,focal plane array (FPA) with 92% operability. At the peak detection wavelength of 278 nm, 320×256-FP A-pixel showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) and responsivity of 49% and 109 mA/W, respectively, increasing to 66% under 5 volts of reverse bias. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density: <7×10-9A/cm², at FPA operating voltage of 2 volts of reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High Frequency Extended Short-Wavelength Infrared Heterojunction Photodetectors Based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II Superlattices
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Ryan McClintock, Arash Dehzangi , Victor Lopez-Dominguez, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 6-- December 1, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors, with 50% cut-off wavelength of 2.1 µm and a −3 dB cut-off frequency of 4.8 GHz, are demonstrated, for 10 µm diameter circular mesas under 15 V applied reverse bias. A study of the cut-off frequency with applied bias and mesa size was performed to evaluate some of the limiting factors of photodetectors high frequency performance. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Characteristics of high quality p-type AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattices
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, S.R. Darvish, Z. Lin, K. Mi, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 80 (12)-- March 18, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
Very-high-quality p-type AlxGa1–xN/GaN superlattices have been grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy through optimization of Mg flow and the period of the superlattice. For the superlattice with x = 26%, the hole concentration reaches a high value of 4.2×1018 cm–3 with a resistivity as low as 0.19 Ω · cm by Hall measurement. Measurements confirm that superlattices with a larger period and higher Al composition have higher hole concentration and lower resistivity, as predicted by theory. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-Performance InP-Based Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 3, May-June 2009, p. 941-951.-- June 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were once considered as inefficient devices, as the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) was merely a few percent at room temperature. But this situation has changed in the past few years, as dramatic enhancements to the output power andWPE have been made for InP-based mid-IR QCLs. Room temperature continuous-wave (CW) output power as high as 2.8 W and WPE as high as 15% have now been demonstrated for individual devices. Along with the fundamental exploration of refining the design and improving the material quality, a consistent determination of important device performance parameters allows for strategically addressing each component that can be improved potentially. In this paper, we present quantitative experimental evidence backing up the strategies we have adopted to improve the WPE for QCLs with room temperature CW operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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