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1.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Mid‑wavelength infrared avalanche photodetector with AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice
Jiakai Li, Arash Dehzangi, Gail Brown, Manijeh Razeghi
Scientifc Reports | (2021) 11:7104 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86566-8 ...[Visit Journal]
In this work, a mid-wavelength infrared separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) with 100% cut-of wavelength of ~ 5.0 µm at 200 K grown by molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. The InAsSb-based SAM-APD device was designed to have electron dominated avalanche mechanism via the band structure engineered multi-quantum well structure based on AlAsSb/GaSb H-structure superlattice and InAsSb material in the multiplication region. The device exhibits a maximum multiplication gain of 29 at 200 K under -14.7 bias voltage. The maximum multiplication gain value for the MWIR SAM-APD increases from 29 at 200 K to 121 at 150 K. The electron and hole impact ionization coefficients were derived and the large difference between their value was observed. The carrier ionization ratio for the MWIR SAM-APD device was calculated to be ~ 0.097 at 200 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-performance InP-based midinfrared quantum cascade lasers at Northwestern University
M. Razeghi, Y. Bai, S. Slivken, and S.R. Darvish
SPIE Optical Engineering, Vol. 49, No. 11, November 2010, p. 111103-1-- November 15, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
We present recent performance highlights of midinfrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on an InP material system. At a representative wavelength around 4.7 µm, a number of breakthroughs have been achieved with concentrated effort. These breakthroughs include watt-level continuous wave operation at room temperature, greater than 50% peak wall plug efficiency at low temperatures, 100-W-level pulsed mode operation at room temperature, and 10-W-level pulsed mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at room temperature. Since the QCL technology is wavelength adaptive in nature, these demonstrations promise significant room for improvement across a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Low Noise Short Wavelength Infrared Avalanche Photodetector Using SB-Based Strained Layer Superlattice
Arash Dehzangi, Jiakai Li, Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 2021, 8(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics8050148 Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 25 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate low noise short wavelength infrared (SWIR) Sb-based type II superlattice (T2SL) avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The SWIR GaSb/(AlAsSb/GaSb) APD structure was designed based on impact ionization engineering and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaSb substrate. At room temperature, the device exhibits a 50% cut-off wavelength of 1.74 µm. The device was revealed to have an electron-dominated avalanching mechanism with a gain value of 48 at room temperature. The electron and hole impact ionization coefficients were calculated and compared to give a better prospect of the performance of the device. Low excess noise, as characterized by a carrier ionization ratio of ~0.07, has been achieved. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Advances in mid-infrared detection and imaging: a key issues review
Manijeh Razeghi and Binh-Minh Nguyen
Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 (2014) 082401-- August 4, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
It has been over 200 years since people recognized the presence of infrared radiation, and developed methods to capture this signal. However, current material systems and technologies for infrared detections have not met the increasing demand for high performance infrared detectors/cameras, with each system having intrinsic drawbacks. Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice has been recently considered as a promising candidate for the next generation of infrared detection and imaging. Type-II superlattice is a man-made crystal structure, consisting of multiple quantum wells placed next to each other in a controlled way such that adjacent quantum wells can interact. The interaction between multiple quantum wells offers an additional degree of freedom in tailoring the material's properties. Another advantage of type-II superlattice is the experimental benefit of inheriting previous research on material synthesis and device fabrication of bulk semiconductors. It is the combination of these two unique strengths of type-II superlattice—novel physics and easy manipulation—that has enabled unprecedented progress in recent years. In this review, we will describe historical development, and current status of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for advanced detection and imaging in the mid-infrared regime (λ = 3–5 µm). [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance antimony based type-II superlattice photodiodes on GaAs substrates
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981T-- April 13, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on GaSb substrate have achieved significant advances in both structural design and material growth, making Type-II superlattice infrared detector a rival competitor to the state-of-the-art MCT technology. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost. The device performances of Type-II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Avalanche Photodetector Based on InAs/InSb Superlattice
Arash Dehzangi, Jiakai Li, Lakshay Gautam and Manijeh Razeghi
Quantum rep. 2020, 2(4), 591-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2040041 (registering DOI)-- December 4, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
This work demonstrates a mid-wavelength infrared InAs/InSb superlattice avalanche photodiode (APD). The superlattice APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrate. The device exhibits a 100 % cut-off wavelength of 4.6 µm at 150 K and 4.30 µm at 77 K. At 150 and 77 K, the device responsivity reaches peak values of 2.49 and 2.32 A/W at 3.75 µm under −1.0 V applied bias, respectively. The device reveals an electron dominated avalanching mechanism with a gain value of 6 at 150 K and 7.4 at 77 K which was observed under −6.5 V bias voltage. The gain value was measured at different temperatures and different diode sizes. The electron and hole impact ionization coefficients were calculated and compared to give a better prospect of the performance of the device. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays for long wavelength infrared detection
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 350-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Nanopillar devices have been fabricated from GaInAs/InP QWIP material grown by MOCVD. Using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching techniques, large, regular arrays of nanopillars with controllable diameters ranging from 150 nm to less than 40 nm have been reproducibly formed. Photoluminescence experiments demonstrate a strong peak wavelength blue shift for nanopillar structures compared to the as-grown quantum well material. Top and bottom metal contacts have been realized using a polyimide planarization and etchback procedure. I-V and noise measurements have been performed. Optical measurements indicate photoconductive response in selected nanopillar arrays. Device peak wavelength response occurs at about 8 µm with peak device responsivity of 420 mA/W. Peak detectivity of 3×108 cm·Hz½/W has been achieved at -1V bias and 30 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Quantum dot in a well infrared photodetectors for high operating temperature focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, T. Yamanaka, S. Abdollahi Pour, I-K Park, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7234-0V-- January 25, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs quantum wells with InAlAs barriers on InP substrate grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are utilized for high operating temperature detectors and focal plane arrays in the middle wavelength infrared. This dot-well combination is unique because the small band offset between the InAs dots and the InGaAs well leads to weak dot confinement of carriers. As a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in the more common dot systems that have stronger confinement. Here, we present energy level modeling of our QD-QW system and apply these results to interpret the detector behavior. Detectors showed high performance with D* over 1010 cm·Hz1/2W-1 at 150 K operating temperature and with high quantum efficiency over 50%. Focal plane arrays have been demonstrated operating at high temperature due to the low dark current observed in these devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy
Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, D. H. Wu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 141104-- April 3, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are versatile light sources with tailorable emitting wavelengths covering the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral ranges. When the dispersion is minimized, frequency combs can be directly emitted from quantum cascade lasers via four-wave mixing. To date, most of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser combs are operational in a narrow wavelength range wherein the QCL dispersion is minimal. In this work, we address the issue of very high dispersion for shortwave QCLs and demonstrate 1-W dispersion compensated shortwave QCL frequency combs at λ~5.0 μm, spanning a spectral range of 100 cm−1. The multi-heterodyne spectrum exhibits 95 equally spaced frequency comb lines, indicating that the shortwave QCL combs are ideal candidates for high-speed high-resolution spectroscopy [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of 256x256 Focal Plane Arrays Based on Al-free GaInAs/InP QWIP
J. Jiang, K. Mi, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and C. Jelen
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15 (9)-- September 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on aluminum-free GaInAs-InP quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs).A unique positive lithography method was developed to perform indium-bump liftoff. The noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) of 29 mK was achieved at 70 K with f/2 optics. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room-temperature, high-power and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 9.6 µm
S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (20)-- May 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers is reported. Continuous-wave output powers of 100 mW at 25 °C and 20 mW at 50 °C are obtained. The device exhibits a cw threshold current density of 1.34 kA/cm2, a maximum cw wall-plug efficiency of 1% at 25 °C, and a characteristic temperature of ~190 K in pulsed mode. Single-mode emission near 9.6 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio of ≥ 30 dB and a tuning range of 2.89 cm–1 from 15 to 50 °C is obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Geiger-Mode Operation of AlGaN Avalanche Photodiodes at 255 nm
Lakshay Gautam, Alexandre Guillaume Jaud, Junhee Lee, Gail J. Brown, Manijeh Razeghi
Published in: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics ( Volume: 57, Issue: 2, April 2021) ...[Visit Journal]
We report the Geiger mode operation of back-illuminated AlGaN avalanche photodiodes. The devices were fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination to leverage hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response was analyzed with a peak detection wavelength of 255 nm with an external quantum efficiency of ~14% at zero bias. Low-photon detection capabilities were demonstrated in devices with areas 25 μm×25 μm. Single photon detection efficiencies of ~5% were achieved. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature continuous wave THz frequency comb based on quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi; Q. Y. Lu; F. H. Wang; D. H. Wu; S. Slivken
Proc. SPIE 11124, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications X, 1112407-- September 6, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Frequency combs, spectra of phase-coherent equidistant lines, have revolutionized time and frequency metrology. The recently developed quantum cascade laser (QCL) comb has exhibits great potential with high power and broadband spectrum. However, in the terahertz (THz) range, cryogenic cooling has to be applied for THz QCL combs. We report a room temperature THz frequency comb at 3.0 THz based on difference-frequency generation from a mid-IR QCL comb. A largely detuned distributed-feedback grating is integrated into the QCL cavity to provide the single mode operation as well as enhanced spatial hole-burning effect for multimode comb operation. Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with multiple equally spaced lines by beating it with a reference Fabry-Pérot comb confirms the THz comb operation. This type of THz comb provides a new solution to chip-based high-speed high-resolution THz spectroscopy with compact size at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Investigation of surface leakage reduction for small pitch shortwave infrared photodetectors
Arash Dehzangi, Quentin Durlin, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, Manijeh Razeghi
Semiconductor Science and Technology, 34(6), 06LT01-- May 25, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
Different passivation techniques are investigated for reducing leakage current in small pixel (down to 9 μm) heterostructure photodetectors designed for the short-wavelength infrared range. Process evaluation test chips were fabricated using the same process as for focal plane arrays. Arrays of small photodetectors were electrically characterized under dark conditions from 150 K to room temperature. In order to evaluate the leakage current, we studied the relation between the inverse of dynamic resistance at −20 mV and zero bias and perimeter over area P/A ratio as the pixel size is scaled down. At 150 K, leakage current arising from the perimeter dominates while bulk leakage dominates at room temperature. We find that in shortwave devices directly underfilling hybridized devices with a thermoset epoxy resin without first doing any additional passivation/protection after etching gives the lowest leakage with a surface resistance of 4.2 × 109 and 8.9 × 103 Ω· cm−1 at 150 and 300 K, for −20 mV of bias voltage, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Surface Emitting, Tunable, Mid-Infrared Laser with High Output Power and Stable Output Beam
Steven Slivken, Donghai Wu & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 549-- January 24, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
A reflective outcoupler is demonstrated which can allow for stable surface emission from a quantum cascade laser and has potential for cost-effective wafer-scale manufacturing. This outcoupler is integrated with an amplified, electrically tunable laser architecture to demonstrate high power surface emission at a wavelength near 4.9 μm. Single mode peak power up to 6.7 W is demonstrated with >6 W available over a 90 cm−1 (215 nm) spectral range. A high quality output beam is realized with a simple, single-layer, anti-reflective coating. The beam shape and profile are shown to be independent of wavelength. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C.S. Kim, J.R. Meyer, J. Nguyen, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 612704-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in a single spectral mode at 4.8 µm and at temperatures up to 333 K has been reported. In the present work, we provide detailed measurements and modeling of its performance characteristics. The sidemode suppression ratio exceeds 25 dB, and the emission remains robustly single-mode at all currents and temperatures tested. Cw output powers of 99 mW at 298 K and 357 mW at 200 K are obtained at currents well below the thermal rollover point. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High peak power 16 m InP-related quantum cascade laser
A. Szerlinga,∗, S. Slivkenb, M. RazeghibaInstytut
Opto-Electronics Review 25, pp. 205–208-- July 22, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
tIn this paper ∼16 μm-emitting multimode InP-related quantum cascade lasers are presented with themaximum operating temperature 373 K, peak and average optical power equal to 720 mW and 4.8 mW at 303 K, respectively, and the characteristic temperature (T0) 272 K. Two types of the lasers were fabricatedand characterized: the lasers with a SiO2 layer left untouched in the area of the metal-free window ontop of the ridge, and the lasers with the SiO2layer removed from the metal-free window area. Dual-wavelength operation was obtained, at ∼15.6 μm (641 cm−1) and at ∼16.6 μm (602 cm−1) for laserswith SiO2-removed, while within the emission spectrum of the lasers with SiO2-left untouched only the former lasing peak was present. The parameters of these devices like threshold current, optical power and emission wavelength are compared. Lasers without the SiO2 layer showed ∼15% lower threshold current than these ones with the SiO2 layer. The optical powers for lasers without SiO2 layer were almost twice higher than for the lasers with the SiO2 layer on the top of the ridge. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Performance InAs/InAsSb Type-II Superlattice Mid-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors with Double Barrier
Donghai Wu, Jiakai Li, Arash Dehzangi, Manijeh Razeghi
Infrared Physics &Technology 103439-- July 18, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
By introducing a double barrier design, a high performance InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice mid-wavelength infrared photodetector has been demonstrated. The photodetector exhibits a cut-off wavelength of ~4.50 µm at 150 K. At 150 K and −120 mV applied bias, the photodetector exhibits a dark current density of 1.21 × 10−5 A/cm2, a quantum efficiency of 45% at peak responsivity (~3.95 µm), and a specific detectivity of 6.9 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. The photodetector shows background-limited operating temperature up to 160 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices
S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 14, p. 143501-1-- April 4, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The dominant dark current mechanisms are identified and suppressed to improve the performance of midwave infrared InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice photodiodes at high temperatures. The optimized heterojunction photodiode exhibits a quantum efficiency of 50% for 2 μm thick active region without any bias dependence. At 150 K, R0A of 5100 Ω·cm² and specific detectivity of 1.05×1012 cm·Hz0.5·W-1 are demonstrated for a 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.2 μm. Assuming 300 K background temperature and 2π field of view, the performance of the detector is background limited up to 180 K, which is improved by 25 °C compared to the homojunction photodiode. Infrared imaging using f/2.3 optics and an integration time of 10.02 ms demonstrates a noise equivalent temperature difference of 11 mK at operating temperatures below 120 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting at 4.5 micron
B. Gokden, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760806-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers possess very small linewidth enhancement factor, which makes them very prominent candidates for realization of high power, nearly diffraction limited and single mode photonic crystal distributed feedback broad area lasers in the mid-infrared frequencies. In this paper, we present room temperature operation of a two dimensional photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.5 µm. peak power up to ~0.9 W per facet is obtained from a 2 mm long laser with 100 µm cavity width at room temperature. The observed spectrum is single mode with a very narrow linewidth. Far-field profile has nearly diffraction limited single lobe with full width at half maximum of 3.5 degree normal to the facet. The mode selection and power output relationships are experimentally established with respect to different cavity lengths for photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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