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3.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature
H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 13, p. 131112-1-- March 26, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The detectivity was 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a bias of −5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.1 μm and a quantum efficiency of 35%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature, which gives a detectivity of 6.7×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-power, continuous-wave, phase-locked quantum cascade laser arrays emitting at 8 μm
WENJIA ZHOU,QUAN-YONG LU,DONG-HAI WU, STEVEN SLIVKEN, AND MANIJEH RAZEGHI
OPTICS EXPRESS 27, 15776-15785-- May 20, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a room-temperature eight-element phase-locked quantum cascade laser array emitting at 8 μm with a high continuous-wave power of 8.2 W and wall plug efficiency of 9.5%. The laser array operates primarily via the in-phase supermode and has single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of ~20 dB. The quantum cascade laser active region is based on a high differential gain (8.7 cm/kA) and low voltage defect (90 meV) design. A record high wall plug efficiency of 20.4% is achieved from a low loss buried ridge type single-element Fabry-Perot laser operating in pulsed mode at 20 °C. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Optical Absorption and Photoresponse in fully Quaternary p-type Quantum Well Detectors
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
Acceptor doped, non-strained aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors lattice matched to GaAs with Ga0.79In0.21As0.59P0.41 wells and Ga0.62In0.38As0.22P0.78 barriers have been demonstrated on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. These devices which operate at normal incidence demonstrate a unique spectral response which extends from approximately 2 μm up to 10 μm. To explain such a broad spectral shape, a detailed theoretical analysis based on the 8 x 8 Kane Hamiltonian was necessary to probe all aspect of optical absorption. The results of this analysis revealed that spectral shape results from the influence of the Spin Split-off band on the band structure and the optical matrix. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Broadband, Tunable, and Monolithic Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken.
Semiconductor lasers; (140.3600) Lasers, tunable-- May 19, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
This article describes the state of research and recent developments related to broadband quantum cascade lasers. Monolithic tuning and system development is also discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  GaInN/GaN Multi-Quantum Well Laser Diodes Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, A. Rybaltowski, X. Zhang, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
MRS Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research 3 (1)-- January 1, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth, fabrication and characterization of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum well lasers grown on (00·1) sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The threshold current density of a 1800 µm long cavity length laser was 1.4 kA/cm² with a threshold voltage of 25 V. These lasers exhibited series resistances of 13 and 14 Ω at 300 and 79 K, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Roadmap of Semiconductor Infrared Lasers and Detectors for the 21st Century
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Since the first discovery, semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors have found many various applications in military, communications, medical, and industry sections. In this paper, the current status of semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors will be reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods and techniques is discussed later. Some basic physical limitations of current technology are studied and the direction to overcome these problems will be suggested. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Single-mode, high-power, midinfrared, quantum cascade laser phased arrays
Wenjia Zhou , Donghai Wu , Quan-Yong Lu, Steven Slivken & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 8:14866-- October 5, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate single-mode, 16-channel, optical phased arrays based on quantum cascade laser technology, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. The integrated device consists of a distributed feedback seed section, a highly-efficient tree array multi-mode interferometer power splitter, and a 16-channel amplifier array with a 4° angled facet termination. With a single layer Y2O3 coating, the angled facet reflectivity is estimated to be less than 0.1% for suppressing amplifier self-lasing. A peak output power of 30 W is achieved with an emission spectrum narrower than 11 nm and a side mode suppression ratio over 25 dB. Far field distribution measurement result indicates a uniform phase distribution across the array output. Using the same phased array architecture, we also demonstrate single-mode 3.8 μm QCL amplifier arrays with up to 20 W output power. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Review of high power frequency comb sources based on InP From MIR to THZ at CQD
Manijeh Razeghi, Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken
Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2018, San Diego, California, United States-- September 14, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the recent development of high performance compact frequency comb sources based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Significant performance improvements of our frequency combs with respect to the continuous wave power output, spectral bandwidth, and beatnote linewidth are achieved by systematic optimization of the device's active region, group velocity dispersion, and waveguide design. To date, we have demonstrated the most efficient, high power frequency comb operation from a free-running room temperature continuous wave (RT CW) dispersion engineered QCL at λ~5-9 μm. In terms of bandwidth, the comb covered a broad spectral range of 120 cm−1 with a radio-frequency intermode beatnote spectral linewidth of 40 Hz and a total power output of 880 mW at 8 μm and 1 W at ~5.0 μm. The developing characteristics show the potential for fast detection of various gas molecules. Furthermore, THz comb sources based on difference frequency generation in a mid-IR QCL combs could be potentially developed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Evaluation of the Band Offsets of GaAs-GaInP Multilayers by Electroreflectance
Razeghi M., D. Yang, J.W. Garland, Z. Zhang, D. Xue
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 1676, pp. 130-- January 1, 1992 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first band offset measurement of GaAs/Ga0.51In0.49P multiquantum wells and superlattices by electrolyte electroreflectance spectroscopy. The conduction and valence band discontinuities (Delta) Ec equals 159 ± 4 meV and (Delta) Ev equals 388 ± 6 meV have been measured. The values found for the conduction band, heavy-hole and light-hole masses in the GaInP barriers and GaAs wells and for the split-off well mass are in excellent agreement with the literature. The intraband, intersubband transition energies, which are important for III - V infrared detection devices, also were directly measured. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy
Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, D. H. Wu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 141104-- April 3, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are versatile light sources with tailorable emitting wavelengths covering the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral ranges. When the dispersion is minimized, frequency combs can be directly emitted from quantum cascade lasers via four-wave mixing. To date, most of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser combs are operational in a narrow wavelength range wherein the QCL dispersion is minimal. In this work, we address the issue of very high dispersion for shortwave QCLs and demonstrate 1-W dispersion compensated shortwave QCL frequency combs at λ~5.0 μm, spanning a spectral range of 100 cm−1. The multi-heterodyne spectrum exhibits 95 equally spaced frequency comb lines, indicating that the shortwave QCL combs are ideal candidates for high-speed high-resolution spectroscopy [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with p-type GaAs Wells and lattice-matched ternary and quaternary barriers
J. Hoff, E. Bigan, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Acceptor doped Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with GaAs wells and lattice matched barriers of both ternary (In0.49Ga0.51P) and quaternary (In0.62Ga0.38As0.22P0.78) materials have been grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates by Low Pressure Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Mesa devices were fabricated and subjected to a series of tests to illuminate experimentally some of the detection capabilities of the lattice matched quaternary InxGa1-xAsyP1-y system with (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.52) and (0 ≤ y ≤ 1). The observed photoresponse cut-off wavelengths are in good agreement with the activation energies observed in the temperature dependence of the dark currents. Kronig-Penney calculations were used to model the intersubband transition energies. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier
S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107, 251101-- December 21, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm−1) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm−1) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Recent Advances in InAs/GaSb Superlattices for Very Long Wavelength Infrared Detection
G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, K. Mahalingam, S. Houston, Y. Wei, A. Gin and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4999, pp. 457-- January 27, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
New infrared (IR) detector materials with high sensitivity, multi-spectral capability, improved uniformity and lower manufacturing costs are required for numerous long and very long wavelength infrared imaging applications. One materials system has shown great theoretical and, more recently, experimental promise for these applications: InAs/InxGa1-xSb type-II superlattices. In the past few years, excellent results have been obtained on photoconductive and photodiode samples designed for infrared detection beyond 15 microns. The infrared properties of various compositions and designs of these type-II superlattices have been studied. The infrared photoresponse spectra are combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra to provide insight into the underlying physics behind the quantum sensing in these materials. Results for superlattice photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths as long as 25 microns are presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Type-II superlattice-based extended short-wavelength infrared focal plane array with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice etch-stop layer to allow near-visible light detection
Romain Chevallier, Arash Dehzangi, Abbas Haddadi, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Letters Vol. 42, Iss. 21, pp. 4299-4302-- October 17, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
A versatile infrared imager capable of imaging the near-visible to the extended short-wavelength infrared (e-SWIR) is demonstrated using e-SWIR InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodiodes. A bi-layer etch-stop scheme consisting of bulk InAs0.91Sb0.09 and AlAs0.1Sb0.9/GaSb superlattice layers is introduced for substrate removal from the hybridized back-side illuminated photodetectors. The implementation of this new technique on an e-SWIR focal plane array results in a significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1.8–0.8μm spectral region, while maintaining a high QE at wavelengths longer than 1.8μm. Test pixels exhibit 100% cutoff wavelengths of ∼2.1 and ∼2.25μm at 150 and 300K, respectively. They achieve saturated QE values of 56% and 68% at 150 and 300K, respectively, under back-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. At 150K, the photodetectors (27μm×27μm area) exhibit a dark current density of 4.7×10−7  A/cm2 under a −50  mV applied bias providing a specific detectivity of 1.77×1012  cm·Hz1/2/W. At 300K, the dark current density reaches 6.6×10−2  A/cm2 under −50 mV bias, providing a specific detectivity of 5.17×109  cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High speed type-II superlattice based photodetectors transferred on sapphire
Arash Dehzangi, Ryan McClintock, Donghai Wu, Jiakai Li, Stephen Johnson, Emily Dial and Manijeh Razeghi
Applied Physics Express, Volume 12, Number 11-- October 3, 2019 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the substrate transfer of InAs/GaSb/AlSb based type-II superlattice (T2SL) e-SWIR photodetector from native GaSb substrates to low loss sapphire substrate in order to enhance the frequency response of the device. We have demonstrated the damage-free transfer of T2SL-based thin-films to sapphire substrate using top–down processing and a chemical epilayer release technique. After transfer the −3 dB cut-off frequency increased from 6.4 GHz to 17.2 GHz, for 8 μm diameter circular mesas under -15 V applied bias. We also investigated the cut-off frequency verses applied bias and lateral scaling to assess the limitations for even higher frequency performance. Direct Link [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  First Demonstration of ~ 10 microns FPAs in InAs/GaSb SLS
M. Razeghi, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, R. McClintock, Y. Wei, E. Michel, V. Nathan and M. Tidrow
IEEE LEOS Newsletter 20 (5)-- October 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The concept of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was first brought by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki, et al. in the 1970s. There had been few studies on this material system until two decades later when reasonable quality material growth was made possible using molecular beam epitaxy. With the addition of cracker cells for the group V sources and optimizations of material growth conditions, the superlattice quality become significantly improved and the detectors made of these superlattice materials can meet the demand in some practical field applications. Especially in the LWIR regime, it provides a very promising alternative to HgCdTe for better material stability and uniformity, etc. We have developed the empirical tight binding model (ETBM) for precise determination of the superlattice bandgap. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Monolithic, steerable, mid-infrared laser realized with no moving parts
Slivken S, Wu D, Razeghi M
Scientific Reports 7, 8472 -- May 24, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High performance quantum dot-quantum well infrared focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, A. Myzaferi, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050J-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot (QD) devices are a promising technology for high operating temperature detectors. We have studied InAs QDs embedded in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well structure on InP substrate for middle wavelength infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). This combined dot-well structure has weak dot confinement of carriers, and as a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in more common dot systems with stronger confinement. We report on our studies of the energy levels in the QDWIP devices and on QD-based detectors operating at high temperature with D* over 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 150 K operating temperature and high quantum efficiency over 50%. FPAs have been demonstrated operating at up to 200 K. We also studied two methods of adapting the QDWIP device to better accommodate FPA readout circuit limitations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Recent advances of terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8119, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications II, 81190D (September 07, 2011)-- November 7, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz quantum cascade laser (QCLs), however, the maximum operating temperature is still limited below 200 K (without magnetic field). THz QCL based on difference frequency generation (DFG) represents a viable technology for room temperature operation. Recently, we have demonstrated room temperature THz emission (∼ 4 THz) up to 8.5 μW with a power conversion efficiency of 10 μW/W². A dual-period distributed feedback grating is used to filter the mid-infrared spectra in favor of an extremely narrow THz linewidth of 6.6 GHz. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 955502-- August 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
III-Nitride material system (AlGaInN) possesses unique optical, electrical and structural properties such as a wide tunable direct bandgap, inherent fast carrier dynamics; good carrier transport properties, high breakdown fields; and high robustness and chemical stability. Recent technological advances in the wide bandgap AlGaN portion of this material system have led to a renewed interest in ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. These detectors find use in numerous applications in the defense, commercial and scientific arenas such as covert space-to-space communications, early missile threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy, flame detection and monitoring, UV environmental monitoring, and UV astronomy.1,2,3 Back illuminated detectors operating in the solar blind region are of special interest. Back illumination allows the detector to be hybridized to a silicon read-out integrated circuit, epi-side down, and still collect light through the back of the transparent sapphire substrate. This allows the realization of solar blind focal plane arrays (FPAs) for imaging applications. Solar-blind FPAs are especially important because of the near total absence of any background radiation in this region. In this talk, we will present our recent back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector, mini-array, and FPA results. By systematically optimizing the design of the structure we have realized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of in excess of 89% for pixel-sized detectors. Based on the absence of any anti-reflection coating, this corresponds to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. At the same time, the dark current remains below ~2 × 10-9 A/cm² even at 10 volts of reverse bias. The detector has a very sharp falloff starting at 275 with the UV-solar rejection of better than three orders of magnitude, and a visible rejection ratio is more than 6 orders of magnitude. This high performance photodetector design was then used as the basis of the realization of solar-blind FPA. We demonstrated a 320×256 FPA with a peak detection wavelength of 278nm. The operability of the FPA was better than 92%, and excellent corrected imaging was obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.8 µm quantum-cascade lasers at room temperature
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 85 (12)-- September 20, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ~4.8 µm is reported up to a temperature of 323 K. Accurate control of layer thickness and strain-balanced material composition is demonstrated using x-ray diffraction. cw output power is reported to be in excess of 370 mW per facet at 293 K, and 38 mW per facet at 323 K. Room-temperature average power measurements are demonstrated with over 600 mW per facet at 50% duty cycle with over 300 mW still observed at 100% (cw) duty cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Combined resonant tunneling and rate equation modeling of terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Zhichao Chen , Andong Liu, Dong Chang , Sukhdeep Dhillon , Manijeh Razeghi , Feihu Wang
Journal of Applied Physics, 135, 115703 ...[Visit Journal]
Terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are technologically important laser sources for the THz range but are complex to model. An efficient extended rate equation model is developed here by incorporating the resonant tunneling mechanism from the density matrix formalism, which permits to simulate THz QCLs with thick carrier injection barriers within the semi-classical formalism. A self-consistent solution is obtained by iteratively solving the Schrödinger-Poisson equation with this transport model. Carrier-light coupling is also included to simulate the current behavior arising from stimulated emission. As a quasi-ab initio model, intermediate parameters such as pure dephasing time and optical linewidth are dynamically calculated in the convergence process, and the only fitting parameters are the interface roughness correlation length and height. Good agreement has been achieved by comparing the simulation results of various designs with experiments, and other models such as density matrix Monte Carlo and non-equilibrium Green’s function method that, unlike here, require important computational resources. The accuracy, compatibility, and computational efficiency of our model enables many application scenarios, such as design optimization and quantitative insights into THz QCLs. Finally, the source code of the model is also provided in the supplementary material of this article for readers to repeat the results presented here, investigate and optimize new designs.
 
3.  Nanoselective area growth of defect-free thick indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on sacrificial ZnO templates
Renaud Puybaret, David J Rogers, Youssef El Gmili, Suresh Sundaram, Matthew B Jordan, Xin Li, Gilles Patriarche, Ferechteh H Teherani, Eric V Sandana, Philippe Bove, Paul L Voss, Ryan McClintock, Manijeh Razeghi, Ian Ferguson, Jean-Paul Salvestrini, and Abdallah Ougazzade
Nanotechnology 28 195304-- April 29, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Nanoselective area growth (NSAG) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of high-quality InGaN nanopyramids on GaN-coated ZnO/c-sapphire is reported. Nanopyramids grown on epitaxial low-temperature GaN-on-ZnO are uniform and appear to be single crystalline, as well as free of dislocations and V-pits. They are also indium-rich (with homogeneous 22% indium incorporation) and relatively thick (100 nm). These properties make them comparable to nanostructures grown on GaN and AlN/Si templates, in terms of crystallinity, quality, morphology, chemical composition and thickness. Moreover, the ability to selectively etch away the ZnO allows for the potential lift-off and transfer of the InGaN/GaN nanopyramids onto alternative substrates, e.g. cheaper and/or flexible. This technology offers an attractive alternative to NSAG on AlN/Si as a platform for the fabrication of high quality, thick and indium-rich InGaN monocrystals suitable for cheap, flexible and tunable light-emitting diodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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