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2.  Evaluating the size-dependent quantum efficiency loss in a SiO2-Y2O3 hybrid gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen , A. M. Hoang , and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 104 , 103509 (2014)-- March 14, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Growing Y2O3 on 20 nm SiO2 to passivate a 11 μm 50% cut-off wavelength long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array reduces its saturated gate bias (VGsat ) to −7 V. Size-dependent quantum efficiency (QE) losses are evaluated from 400 μm to 57 μm size gated photodiode. Evolution of QE of the 57 μm gated photodiode with gate bias and diode operation bias reveals different surface recombination mechanisms. At 77 K and VG,sat , the 57 μm gated photodiode exhibits QE enhancement from 53% to 63%, and it has 1.2 × 10−5 A/cm² dark current density at −200 mV, and a specific detectivity of 2.3 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetecto
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- December 4, 2006 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-performance, continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 85° C at λ ~ 8.8 μm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vo. 93, No. 2, p. 405-408-- November 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
High-temperature, high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers with 35 active/injector stages at λ∼8.85 μm above room temperature is achieved without using a buried heterostructure. At this long wavelength, the use of a wider ridge waveguide in an epilayer-down bonding scheme leads to a superior performance of the laser. For a high-reflectivity-coated 21 μm×3 mm laser, the output power of 237 mW and the threshold current density of 1.44 kA·cm-2 at 298 K under CW mode are obtained with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.7%. Further improvements were observed by using a 4-mm-long cavity. The device exhibits 294 mW of output power at 298 K and it operates at a high temperature, even up to 358 K (85°C). The full widths at half-maximum of the laser beam in CW operation for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 25°and 63°, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN/GaN superlattices for near-infrared intersubband transitions
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, R. McClintock, B. Fain and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 12, p. 121902-1-- March 23, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique is developed for the growth of high-quality AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) with intersubband (ISB) transitions at optical communications wavelengths. Tunability of the AlN and GaN layers is demonstrated. Indium is shown to improve SL surface and structural quality. Capping thickness is shown to be crucial for ISB transition characteristics. Effects of barrier- and well-doping on the ISB absorption are reported. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High performance bias-selectable three-color Short-wave/Mid-wave/Long-wave Infrared Photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
Anh Minh Hoang, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 24144-- April 7, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
We propose a new approach in device architecture to realize bias-selectable three-color shortwave-midwave-longwave infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices. The effect of conduction band off-set and different doping levels between two absorption layers are employed to control the turn-on voltage for individual channels. The optimization of these parameters leads to a successful separation of operation regimes; we demonstrate experimentally three-color photodiodes without using additional terminal contacts. As the applied bias voltage varies, the photodiodes exhibit sequentially the behavior of three different colors, corresponding to the bandgap of three absorbers. Well defined cut-offs and high quantum efficiency in each channel are achieved. Such all-in-one devices also provide the versatility of working as single or dual-band photodetectors at high operating temperature. With this design, by retaining the simplicity in device fabrication, this demonstration opens the prospect for three-color infrared imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Recent advances in mid infrared (3-5 μm) quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi; Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay; Yanbo Bai; Quanyong Lu; Steven Slivken
Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1872-1884 (2013)-- November 2, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important source of electromagnetic radiation in mid infrared region. Recent research in mid-IR QCLs has resulted in record high wallplug efficiency (WPE), high continuous wave (CW) output power, single mode operation and wide tunability. CW output power of 5.1 W with 21% WPE has been achieved at room temperature (RT). A record high WPE of 53% at 40K has been demonstrated. Operation wavelength of QCL in CW at RT has been extended to as short as 3μm. Very high peak power of 190 W has been obtained from a broad area QCL of ridge width 400μm. 2.4W RT, CW power output has been achieved from a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. Wide tuning based on dual section sample grating DFB QCLs has resulted in individual tuning of 50cm-1 and 24 dB side mode suppression ratio with continuous wave power greater than 100 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Quantum-Cascade Lasers Operating in Continuous-Wave Mode Above 90°C at λ ~5.25 µm
A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (5)-- January 30, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the design and fabrication of λ~5.25 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) for very high temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation. CW operation is reported up to a maximum temperature of 90 °C (363 K). CW output power is reported in excess of 500 mW near room temperature with a low threshold current density. A finite element thermal model is used to investigate the Gth and maximum CW operating temperature of the QCLs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Surface leakage investigation via gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, E.K. Huang, A.M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 21, p. 213501-1-- November 19, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
By using gating technique, surface leakage generated by SiO2 passivation in long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice photodetector is suppressed, and different surface leakage mechanisms are disclosed. By reducing the SiO2 passivation layer thickness, the saturated gated bias is reduced to −4.5 V. At 77 K, dark current densities of gated devices are reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, with 3071 Ω·cm² differential-resistance-area product at −100 mV. With quantum efficiency of 50%, the 11 μm 50% cut-off gated photodiode has a specific detectivity of 7 × 1011 Jones, and the detectivity stays above 2 × 1011 Jones from 0 to −500 mV operation bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Dark current suppression in Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice long wavelength infrared photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 16, p. 163511-1-- October 15, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We presented an alternative design of Type-II superlattice photodiodes with the insertion of a mid-wavelength infrared M-structure AlSb/GaSb/InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice for the reduction of dark current. The M-structure superlattice has a larger carrier effective mass and a greater band discontinuity as compared to the standard Type-II superlattices at the valence band. It acts as an effective medium that weakens the diffusion and tunneling transport at the depletion region. As a result, a 10.5 µm cutoff Type-II superlattice with 500 nm M-superlattice barrier exhibited a R0A of 200 cm2 at 77 K, approximately one order of magnitude higher than the design without the barrier. The quantum efficiency of such structures does not show dependence on either barrier thickness or applied bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product
M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken
Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 7, pp. 8462-8475-- March 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important laser source in the mid-infrared and terahertz frequency range. The past twenty years have witnessed its tremendous development in power, wall plug efficiency, frequency coverage and tunability, beam quality, as well as various applications based on QCL technology. Nowadays, QCLs can deliver high continuous wave power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature, and cover a wide frequency range from 3 to 300 μm by simply varying the material components. Broadband heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral range from 3 to 12 μm, wavelength agile QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, and on-chip beam QCL combiner are being developed for the next generation tunable mid-infrared source for spectroscopy and sensing. Terahertz sources based on nonlinear generation in QCLs further extend the accessible wavelength into the terahertz range. Room temperature continuous wave operation, high terahertz power up to 1.9 mW, and wide frequency tunability form 1 to 5 THz makes this type of device suitable for many applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 4 µm
J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (4)-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power cw λ~4 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated. The effect of different cavity length and laser die bonding is also investigated. For a high-reflectivity-coated 11-μm-wide and 4-mm-long epilayer-down bonded QCL, cw output powers as high as 1.6 W at 80 K and 160 mW at 298 K are obtained, and the cw operation is achieved up to 313 K with 12 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Positive and negative luminescence in binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61271H-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In the present work, we show measurements of both positive and negative luminescence of binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the 3 to 13 μm spectral range. Through a radiometric calibration technique, we demonstrate temperature independent negative luminescence efficiencies of 45 % in the midwavelength (MWIR) sample from 220 K to 320 K without anti-reflective coating and values reaching 35 % in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectrum sample. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Broadband, Tunable, and Monolithic Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken.
Semiconductor lasers; (140.3600) Lasers, tunable-- May 19, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
This article describes the state of research and recent developments related to broadband quantum cascade lasers. Monolithic tuning and system development is also discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  AlxGa1-xN for Solar-Blind UV Detectors
P. Sandvik, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, R. McClintock, A. Yasan, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Crystal Growth 231 (2001)-- January 1, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlGaN thin films on sapphire substrates over a wide range of Al concentrations. The quality of these AlGaN materials was verified through a demonstration of high performance visible and solar-blind UV p–i–n photodiodes with peak cutoff wavelengths ranging from 227 to 364 nm. External quantum efficiencies for these devices reached as high as 69% with over five orders rejection ratio from the peak to visible wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High power broad area quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 22, p. 221104-1-- November 30, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are studied with ridge widths up to 400 µm, in room temperature pulsed mode operation at an emission wavelength around 4.45 µm. The peak output power scales linearly with the ridge width. A maximum total peak output power of 120 W is obtained from a single 400-µm-wide device with a cavity length of 3 mm. A stable far field emission characteristic is observed with dual lobes at ±38° for all tested devices, which suggests that these broad area QCLs are highly resistant to filamentation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Power, Continuous-Wave, Quantum Cascade Lasers for MWIR and LWIR Applications
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 612703-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Over the past several years, our group has endeavored to develop high power quantum cascade lasers for a variety of remote and high sensitivity infrared applications. The systematic optimization of laser performance has allowed for demonstration of high power, continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature. Since 2002, the power levels for individual devices have jumped from 20 mW to 600 mW. Expanding on this development, we have able to demonstrate continuous wave operation at many wavelengths throughout the mid- and far-infrared spectral range, and have now achieved >100 mW output in the 4.0 to 9.5 µm range. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN/GaN superlattices for intersubband transitions
C. Bayram, B. Fain, N. Pere-Laperne, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-12-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, specifically designed for high quality AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) is introduced. Optical quality and precise controllability over layer thicknesses are investigated. Indium is shown to improve interface and surface quality. An AlN/GaN SL designed for intersubband transition at a telecommunication wavelength of ~1.5 µm, is grown, and processed for intersubband (ISB) absorption measurements. Room temperature measurements show intersubband absorption centered at 1.49 µm. Minimal (n-type) silicon doping of the well is shown to be crucial for good ISB absorption characteristics. The potential to extend this technology into the far infrared and even the terahertz (THz) region is also discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Solar-blind photodetectors based on Ga2O3 and III-nitrides
Ryan McClintock; Alexandre Jaud; Lakshay Gautam; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 11288, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII, 1128803-- January 31, 2020 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the wide bandgap semiconductors for solar blind photo detectors (SBPD). This work presents our recent progress in the growth/doping of AlGaN and Ga2O3 thin films for solar blind detection applications. Both of these thin films grown are grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in the same Aixtron MOCVD system. Solar-blind metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors were fabricated with Ga2O3. Spectral responsivity studies of the MSM photodetectors revealed a peak at 261 nm and a maximum EQE of 41.7% for a −2.5 V bias. We have also demonstrated AlGaN based solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with a gain in excess of 57,000 at ~100 volts of reverse bias. This gain can be attributed to avalanche multiplication of the photogenerated carriers within the device. Both of these devices show the potential of wide bandgap semiconductors for solar blind photo detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from M-structure InAs/GaSb superlattices
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0W-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent advances in the design and fabrication of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices allowed the realization of high performance long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays. The introduction of an Mstructure barrier between the n-type contact and the pi active region reduced the tunneling component of the dark current. The M-structure design improved the noise performance and the dynamic range of FPAs at low temperatures. At 81K, the NEDT of the focal plane array was 23 mK. The noise of the camera was dominated by the noise component due to the read out integrated circuit. At 8 µm, the median quantum efficiency of the detectors was 71%, mainly limited by the reflections on the backside of the array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type-II superlattice photodetectors for MWIR to VLWIR focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E. Michel and R. McClintock
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060N-1-- April 21, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Results obtained on GaSb/InAs Type-II superlattices have shown performance comparable to HgCdTe detectors, with the promise of higher performance due to reduced Auger recombination and dark current through improvements in device design and material quality. In this paper, we discuss advancements in Type-II IR sensors that cover the 3 to > 30 µm wavelength range. Specific topics covered will be device design and modeling using the Empirical Tight Binding Method (ETBM), material growth and characterization, device fabrication and testing, as well as focal plane array processing and imaging. Imaging has been demonstrated at room temperature for the first time with a 5 µm cutoff wavelength 256×256 focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design
Wenjia Zhou, Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 25213 -- June 8, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm−1) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  New frontiers in InP based quantum devices
Manijeh Razeghi
Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008. IPRM 2008. 20th International Conference on, pp.1,4, (2008)-- May 29, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent research activities taking place at center for quantum devices (CQD) based on InP material system, especially the exploration and demonstration of the state-of-art high performance quantum cascade lasers (QCL), greatly facilitate the understanding of the underlining physical principles governing the device operation. Thanks to the endless effort putting into the semiconductor epitaxy technologies, including the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD), the world has seen a close approaching to the ultimate band gap engineering. Highly sophisticated man-made heterostructure, which incorporates hundreds of alternating layers of GaInAs/AlInAs with each layer thickness and composition specifically designed, can be created within a single growth. The material quality is evidenced by the atomically abrupt interfaces. The versatility of the band gap engineering is greatly enhanced by the strain-balanced technique, which allows for growing structures with continuously tunable conduction band offset with little defects. As a result, the room temperature continuous wave (CW) wall plug efficiency (WPE) and the maximum achievable output optical power from a single device have been constantly improving. Novel waveguide incorporating the photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) mechanism is also investigated with satisfactory preliminary results. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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