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226.  Quantum dot in a well infrared photodetectors for high operating temperature focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, T. Yamanaka, S. Abdollahi Pour, I-K Park, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7234-0V-- January 25, 2009
InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs quantum wells with InAlAs barriers on InP substrate grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are utilized for high operating temperature detectors and focal plane arrays in the middle wavelength infrared. This dot-well combination is unique because the small band offset between the InAs dots and the InGaAs well leads to weak dot confinement of carriers. As a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in the more common dot systems that have stronger confinement. Here, we present energy level modeling of our QD-QW system and apply these results to interpret the detector behavior. Detectors showed high performance with D* over 1010 cm·Hz1/2W-1 at 150 K operating temperature and with high quantum efficiency over 50%. Focal plane arrays have been demonstrated operating at high temperature due to the low dark current observed in these devices. reprint
 
227.  GaN nanostructured p-i-n photodiodes
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, P. Giedraitis, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 22, p. 221104-1-- December 1, 2008
We report the fabrication of nanostructured p-i-n photodiodes based on GaN. Each device comprises arrays of ~200 nm diameter and 520 nm tall nanopillars on a 1 µm period, fabricated by e-beam lithography. Strong rectifying behavior was obtained with an average reverse current per nanopillar of 5 fA at −5 V. In contrast to conventional GaN diodes, nanostructured devices reproducibly show ideality factors lower than 2. Enhanced tunneling through sidewall surface states is proposed as the responsible mechanism for this behavior. Under backillumination, the quantum efficiency in nanostructured devices is partly limited by the collection efficiency of holes into the nanopillars. reprint
 
228.  Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, Vol. 95, p. 307-314-- November 29, 2008
Growths of blue and green multi-quantum wells (MQWs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are realized on lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN, and compared with identical structures grown on conventional GaN. Atomic force microscopy is used to confirm the significant reduction of dislocations in the wing region of our LEO samples before active-region growth. Differences between surface morphologies of blue and green MQWs are analyzed. These MQWs are integrated into LEDs. All devices show a blue shift in the electroluminescence (EL) peak and narrowing in EL spectra with increasing injection current, both characteristics attributed to the band-gap renormalization. Green LEDs show a larger EL peak shift and a broader EL spectrum due to larger piezoelectric field and more indium segregation in the MQWs, respectively. Blue LEDs on LEO GaN show a higher performance than those on conventional GaN; however, no performance difference is observed for green LEDs on LEO GaN versus conventional GaN. The performance of the green LEDs is shown to be primarily limited by the active layer growth quality. reprint
 
229.  High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M.P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 21, p. 211107-1-- November 24, 2008
Back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) composed of heterojunctions of either p-GaN/i-GaN/n-AlGaN or p-GaN/i-GaN/n-GaN/n-AlGaN were fabricated on AlN templates. At low voltage, an external quantum efficiency of 57% at 352 nm with a bandpass response was achieved by using AlGaN in the n-layer. Dependency of gain and leakage current on mesa area for these heterojunction APDs were studied. Back-illumination via different wavelength sources was used to demonstrate the advantages of hole-initiated multiplication in GaN APDs. reprint
 
230.  High-performance, continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 85° C at λ ~ 8.8 μm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vo. 93, No. 2, p. 405-408-- November 1, 2008
High-temperature, high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers with 35 active/injector stages at λ∼8.85 μm above room temperature is achieved without using a buried heterostructure. At this long wavelength, the use of a wider ridge waveguide in an epilayer-down bonding scheme leads to a superior performance of the laser. For a high-reflectivity-coated 21 μm×3 mm laser, the output power of 237 mW and the threshold current density of 1.44 kA·cm-2 at 298 K under CW mode are obtained with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.7%. Further improvements were observed by using a 4-mm-long cavity. The device exhibits 294 mW of output power at 298 K and it operates at a high temperature, even up to 358 K (85°C). The full widths at half-maximum of the laser beam in CW operation for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 25°and 63°, respectively. reprint
 
231.  Band edge tunability of M-structure for heterojunction design in Sb based Type-II superlattice photodiodes
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 16, p. 163502-1-- October 20, 2008
We present theoretically and experimentally the effect of the band discontinuity in Type-II misaligned InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes. Calculations using the empirical tight binding method have shown the great flexibility in tuning the energy levels of the band edge in M-structure superlattice as compared to the standard InAs/GaSb superlattice. Through the experimental realization of several p-pi-M-n photodiodes, the band discontinuity alignment between the standard binary-binary superlattice and the M-structured superlattice was investigated via optical characterization. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurement confirms the capability of controlling the M-structure band edges and suggests a way to exploit this advantage for the realization of heterostructures containing an M-structured superlattice without bias dependent operation. reprint
 
232.  Delta-doping optimization for high qualityp-type GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, No. 8-- October 15, 2008
Delta-doping is studied in order to achieve high quality p-type GaN. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Hall measurements are performed on the samples to optimize the delta-doping characteristics. The effect of annealing on the electrical, optical, and structural quality is also investigated for different delta-doping parameters. Optimized pulsing conditions result in layers with hole concentrations near 1018 cm−3 and superior crystal quality compared to conventional p-GaN. This material improvement is achieved thanks to the reduction in the Mg activation energy and self-compensation effects in delta-doped p-GaN. reprint
 
233.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: the quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, Vol. 18, No. 14-- October 6, 2008reprint
 
234.  Background limited long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes operating at 110 K
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 12, p. 123502-1-- September 22, 2008
The utilization of the P+-pi-M-N+ photodiode architecture in conjunction with a thick active region can significantly improve long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. By studying the effect of the depletion region placement on the quantum efficiency in a thick structure, we achieved a topside illuminated quantum efficiency of 50% for an N-on-P diode at 8.0 µm at 77 K. Both the double heterostructure design and the application of polyimide passivation greatly reduce the surface leakage, giving an R0A of 416 Ω·cm2 for a 1% cutoff wavelength of 10.52 µm, a Shot–Johnson detectivity of 8.1×1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K, and a background limited operating temperature of 110 K with 300 K background. reprint
 
235.  Quantum Devices Based on Modern Band Structure Engineering and Epitaxial Technology
M. Razeghi
Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 22, No. 24, p. 2343-2371-- September 20, 2008
Modern band structure engineering is based both on the important discoveries of the past century and modern epitaxial technology. The general goal is to control the behavior of charge carriers on an atomic scale, which affects how they interact with each other and their environment. Starting from the basic semiconductor heterostructure, band structure engineering has evolved into a powerful discipline, employing lower dimensionality to demonstrate new material properties. Several modern technologies under development are used as examples of how this discipline is enabling new types of devices and new functionality in areas with immediate application.
 
236.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: The quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, Vol. 78, No. 11-- September 15, 2008
We consider the problem of charge transport and recombination in semiconductor quantum well infrared photodetectors and quantum-dot-in-a-well infrared detectors. The photoexcited carrier relaxation is calculated using rigorous random-walk and diffusion methods, which take into account the finiteness of recombination cross sections, and if necessary the memory of the carrier generation point. In the present application, bias fields are high and it is sufficient to consider the drift limited regime. The photoconductive gain is discussed in a quantum-mechanical language, making it more transparent, especially with regard to understanding the bias and temperature dependence. Comparing experiment and theory, we can estimate the respective recombination times. The method developed here applies equally well to nanopillar structures, provided account is taken of changes in mobility and trapping. Finally, we also derive formulas for the photocurrent time decays, which in a clean system at high bias are sums of two exponentials. reprint
 
237.  Very high performance LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708205-- September 3, 2008
LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have for long time suffered from a high dark current level and a low dynamic resistance which hampers the its emergence to the infrared detection and imaging industry. However, with the use of M-structure superlattice, a new Type-II binary InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice design, as an effective blocking barrier, the dark current in type-II superlattice diode has been significantly reduced. We have obtained comparable differential resistance product to the MCT technology at the cut-off wavelength of 10 and 14μm. Also, this new design is compatible with the optical optimization scheme, leading to high quantum efficiency, high special detectivity devices for photon detectors and focal plane arrays. reprint
 
238.  A hybrid green light-emitting diode comprised of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN
C. Bayram, F. Hosseini Teherani, D.J. Rogers and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 8, p. 081111-1-- August 25, 2008
Hybrid green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprised of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN were grown on semi-insulating AlN/sapphire using pulsed laser deposition for the n-ZnO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition for the other layers. X-ray diffraction revealed that high crystallographic quality was preserved after the n-ZnO growth. LEDs showed a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V and a room temperature electroluminescence (EL) centered at 510 nm. A blueshift and narrowing of the EL peak with increasing current was attributed to bandgap renormalization. The results indicate that hybrid LED structures could hold the prospect for the development of green LEDs with superior performance. reprint
 
239.  Development of material quality and structural design for high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow and V. Nathan
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708204-- August 11, 2008
Recent progress made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors lifted both the quantum efficiency and the R0A product of the detectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR)and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) ranges, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detectors (QWIP) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed superlattices designs that were nearly lattice-matched to the GaSb substrates and presented cutoff wavelengths of 5 and 11 μm. We demonstrated high quality material growth with X-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm2. The detectors with a 5 μm cutoff, capable of operating at room temperature, showed a R0A of 1.25 106 Ω.cm2 at 77K, and a quantum efficiency of 32%. In the long wavelength infrared, we demonstrated high quantum efficiencies above 50% with high R0A products of 12 Ω.cm2 by increasing the thickness of the active region. Using the novel M-structure superlattice design, more than one order of magnitude improvement has been observed for electrical performance of the devices. Focal plane arrays in the middle and long infrared range, hybridized to an Indigo read out integrated circuit, exhibited high quality imaging. reprint
 
240.  High-performance, continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.6 μm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 8, p. 747-754-- August 1, 2008
We report the high-performance continuous-wave (CW) operation of 10-μm-wide quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at λ ~ 4.6 μm, based on the GaInAs–AlInAs material without regrowth, in epilayer-up and -down bonding configurations. The operational characteristics of QCLs such as the maximum average power, peak output power, CW output power, and maximum CW operating temperature are investigated, depending on cavity length. Also, important device parameters, i.e., the waveguide loss, the transparency current density, the modal gain, and the internal quantum efficiency, are calculated from length-dependent results. For a high-reflectivity (HR) coated 4-mm-long cavity with epilayer-up bonding, the highest maximum average output power of 633 mW is measured at 65% duty cycle, with 469 mW still observed at 100%. The laser exhibits the maximum wall-plug efficiencies of 8.6% and 3.1% at 298 K, in pulsed and CW operatons, respectively. From 298 to 393 K, the temperature dependent threshold current density in pulsed operation shows a high characteristic temperature of 200 K. The use of an epilayer-down bonding further improves the device performance. A CW output power of 685 mW at 288 K is achieved for the 4-micron-long cavity. At 298 K, the output power of 590 mW, threshold current density of 1.52 kA / cm2, and maximum wall-plug efficiency of 3.73% are obtained under CW mode, operating up to 363 K (90 °C). For HR coated 3-micron-long cavities, laser characteristics across the same processed wafer show a good uniformity across the area of 2 x 1 cm2, giving similar output powers, threshold current densities, and emission wavelengths. The CW beam full-width at half-maximum of far-field patterns are 25 degree and 46 degree for the parallel and the perpendicular directions, respectively. reprint
 
241.  The effect of doping the M-barrier in very long-wave type-II InAs/GaSb heterodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 3, p. 031107-1-- July 21, 2008
A variation on the standard homo-diode Type-II superlattice with an M-barrier between the pi-region and the n-region is shown to suppress the dark currents. By determining the optimal doping level of the M-superlattice, dark current densities of 4.95 mA·cm-2 and quantum efficiencies in excess of 20% have been demonstrated at the moderate reverse bias of 50 mV; allowing for near background-limited performance with a Johnson-noise detectivity of 3.11×1010 Jones at 77 K for a 14.58 µm cutoff wavelength for large area diodes without passivation. This is comparable to values for the state-of-the-art HgCdTe photodiodes. reprint
 
242.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 2, p. 021103-1-- July 14, 2008
An InP based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 4.6 µm was grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The wafer was processed into a conventional double-channel ridge waveguide geometry with ridge widths of 19.7 and 10.6 µm without semi-insulating InP regrowth. An uncoated, narrow ridge device with a 4.8 mm cavity length was epilayer down bonded to a diamond submount and exhibits 2.5 W maximum output power with a wall plug efficiency of 12.5% at room temperature in continuous wave operation. reprint
 
243.  Investigations of ZnO thin films grown on c-Al(2)O(3) by pulsed laser deposition in N(2) + O(2) ambient
D.J. Rogers, D.C. Look, F.H. Teherani, K. Minder, M. Razeghi, A. Largeteau, G. Demazeau, J. Morrod, K.A. Prior, A. Lusson, and S. Hassani
Physica Status Solidi (c), Vol. 5, No. 9, p. 3084-3087-- July 1, 2008
ZnO films were deposited on c-Al2O3 using pulsed laser deposition both with and without N2 in the growth ambient. X-ray diffraction revealed poorer crystal quality and surface morphology for one-step growths with N2 in the ambient. A marked improvement in both the crystallographic and surface quality was obtained through use of two-step growths employing nominally undoped ZnO buffer layers prior to growth with N2 in the ambient. All films showed majority n-type conduction in Hall measurements. Post-annealing for 30 minutes at 600 ºC in O2 systematically reduced both the carrier concentration and the conductivity. A base room temperature carrier concentration of ~ 1016 cm-3 was linked to Al diffusing from the substrate. 4.2 K photoluminescence spectra exhibited blue bands associated with the growths having N2 in the ambient. Temperature dependent Hall measurements were consistent with N being incorporated in the films. Processed devices did not, however, show rectifying behavior or electroluminescence. reprint
 
244.  Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type delta-doping
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 24, p. 241103-1-- June 16, 2008
High quality delta-doped p-GaN is used as a means of improving the performance of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Devices with delta-doped p-GaN show consistently lower leakage current and lower breakdown voltage than those with bulk p-GaN. APDs with delta-doped p-GaN also achieve a maximum multiplication gain of 5.1×104, more than 50 times higher than that obtained in devices with bulk p-GaN. The better device performance of APDs with delta-doped p-GaN is attributed to the higher structural quality of the p-GaN layer achieved via delta-doping. reprint
 
245.  InP-based quantum-dot infrared photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high temperature imaging
S. Tsao, H. Lim, H. Seo, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 936-941-- June 1, 2008
We report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor depositon. The detectivity was 6 x 1010cm·Hz1/2·W-1 at 150 K and a bias of 5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.0 micron and a quantum efficiency of 48%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature. A 320 x 256 middle wavelength infrared focal plane array operating at temperatures up to 200 K was also demonstrated. The focal plane array had 34 mA/W responsivity, 1.1% conversion efficiency, and noise equivalent temperature difference of 344 mK at 120 K operating temperature. reprint
 
246.  New frontiers in InP based quantum devices
Manijeh Razeghi
Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008. IPRM 2008. 20th International Conference on, pp.1,4, (2008)-- May 29, 2008
Recent research activities taking place at center for quantum devices (CQD) based on InP material system, especially the exploration and demonstration of the state-of-art high performance quantum cascade lasers (QCL), greatly facilitate the understanding of the underlining physical principles governing the device operation. Thanks to the endless effort putting into the semiconductor epitaxy technologies, including the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD), the world has seen a close approaching to the ultimate band gap engineering. Highly sophisticated man-made heterostructure, which incorporates hundreds of alternating layers of GaInAs/AlInAs with each layer thickness and composition specifically designed, can be created within a single growth. The material quality is evidenced by the atomically abrupt interfaces. The versatility of the band gap engineering is greatly enhanced by the strain-balanced technique, which allows for growing structures with continuously tunable conduction band offset with little defects. As a result, the room temperature continuous wave (CW) wall plug efficiency (WPE) and the maximum achievable output optical power from a single device have been constantly improving. Novel waveguide incorporating the photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) mechanism is also investigated with satisfactory preliminary results. reprint
 
247.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. reprint
 
248.  High Optical Response in Forward Biased (In,Ga)N-GaN Multiquantum-Well Diodes Under Barrier Illumination
J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, K. Minder, D. Silversmith and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 4, p. 346-353.-- April 1, 2008
The authors report on the current–voltage (I–V) characteristic under forward biases obtained in low leakage, small size p-(In,Ga)N–GaN-n multiquantum well diodes. Under barrier illumination, the devices present a high optical response with capabilities to detect optical powers in the pW range without further amplification. This response is attributed to the screening of the internal electric fields. Recombination times of a few seconds are found to be associated to this mechanism. Moreover, a step-like feature is found in the I– V characteristic before the diode turn-on voltage. Our model proposes tunneling current through the multi-quantum-well structure as responsible of this feature. Fast modulation of the tunneling effect under barrier illumination is used to evaluate the detection of low photon fluxes. reprint
 
249.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. reprint
 
250.  Recent advances in LWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 6940, Orlando, FL 2008, p. 694009-- March 17, 2008
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices,we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. reprint
 

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