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426.  High Performance Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui and A. Matlis
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001
Recent improvements in quantum cascade laser technology have led to a number of very impressive results. This paper is a brief summary of the technological development and state-of- the-art performance of quantum cascade lasers produced at the Center for Quantum Devices. Laser design will be discussed, as well as experimental details of device fabrication. Room temperature QCL operation has been reported for lasers emitting between 5 - 11 μm, with 9 - 11 μm lasers operating up to 425 K. We also demonstrate record room temperature peak output powers at 9 and 11 μm(2.5 W and 1 W respectively) as well as record low 80 K threshold current densities (250 A/cm²) for some laser designs. Finally, some of the current limitations to laser efficiency are mentioned, as well as a means to combat them. reprint
427.  Quantum Dot Intersubband Photodetectors
C. Jelen, M. Erdtmann, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001
Quantum dots are recognized as very promising candidates for the fabrication of intersubband photodetectors in the infrared spectral range. At present, material quality is making rapid progress and some devices have been demonstrated. Examples of mid-infrared quantum dot intersubband photodetectors are presented along with device design and data analysis. Nonetheless, the performance of these devices remains less than comparable quantum well intersubband photodetectors due to difficulties in controlling the quantum dot size and distribution during epitaxy. reprint
428.  Monolithic Integration of GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrate
M. Erdtmann and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001
Using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, we have grown GaInAs/InP QWIP structures on GaAs-coated Si substrate. First, the procedure to optimize the epitaxy of the InP buffer layer on Si substrate is given. Excellent crystallinity and a mirror-like surface morphology were obtained by using both a two-step growth process at the beginning of the InP buffer layer growth and several series of thermal cycle annealing throughout the InP buffer layer growth. Second, results of fabricated GaInAs/InP QWIPs on Si substrate are presented. At a temperature of 80 K, the peak response wavelength occurs at 7.4 μm. The responsivities of QWIPs on both Si and InP substrates with identical structures are equal up to biases of 1.5 V. At a bias of 3 V, the responsivity of the QWIPs on Si substrate is 1.0 A/W. reprint
429.  High Performance Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
H. Mohseni, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001
We report on the demonstration of high performance p-i-n photodiodes based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices operating in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range at 80 K. Material is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates with excellent crystal quality as evidenced by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The processed devices with a 50% cutoff wavelength of λc equals 22 μm show a peak current responsivity about 5.5 A/W at 80 K. The use of binary layers in the superlattice has significantly enhanced the uniformity and reproducibility of the energy gap. The 90% to 10% cut-off energy width of these devices is on the order of 2 kT which is about four times smaller compared to the devices based on InAs/Ga1-xInxSb superlattices. Similar photovoltaic devices with cut-off wavelengths up to 25 μm have been measured at 80 K. Our experimental results shows excellent uniformity over a three inch wafer area, indicating the possibility of VLWIR focal plane arrays based on Type-II superlattices. reprint
430.  AlxGa1-xN Materials and Device Technology for Solar Blind Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications
R. McClintock, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, A. Yasan, C. Jelen, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4288, pp. 219-- January 22, 2001
There has been a growing interest for the development of solar blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors for use in a variety of applications, including early missile threat warning, flame monitoring, UV radiation monitoring and chemical/biological reagent detection. The AlxGa1-xN material system has emerged as the most promising approach for such devices. However, the control of the material quality and the device technology are still rather immature. We report here the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, the n-type and the p-type doping of high quality AlxGa1-xN thin films on sapphire substrates over a wide range of Al concentration. reprint
431.  Novel Sb-based Alloys for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001
We report on the growth and characterization of InSbBi, InTlSb, InTlP, and the quaternary alloys for uncooled long- wavelength infrared photodetector applications. The layers were grown on InSb and GaAs substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The incorporation of Bi and Tl in InSb was investigated with high-resolution x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and optical photoresponse measurements. We also demonstrate the photodetectors fabricated from the grown InSbBi and InTlSb alloys. InSb0.96Bi0.04 photoconductive detectors exhibited a responsivity of 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The estimated Johnson noise limited detectivity at 7 micrometers was 1.7 X 108 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K. A room temperature operating InSb0.95Bi0.05 photodetector was also demonstrated. Photoresponse up to 12 micrometers was achieved at 300 K. The responsivity and Johnson noise-limited detectivity at 10.6 μm were 1.9 mV/W and 1.2 X 106 cm·Hz½/W, respectively. Photoresponse up to 15 μm was achieved at 300 K from quaternary InTlAsSb and InBiAsSb alloys. reprint
432.  Long-Wavelength Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
M. Razeghi, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, J. Diaz, F. Guastavino and Y.S. Park
-- January 1, 2001
433.  Miniaturization: enabling technology for the new millennium
M. Razeghi and H. Mohseni
-- January 1, 2001
434.  Development of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, J. Diaz, F. Guastavino, G.J. Brown, and Y.S. Park
-- January 1, 2001
435.  AlxGa1-xN for Solar-Blind UV Detectors
P. Sandvik, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, R. McClintock, A. Yasan, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Crystal Growth 231 (2001)-- January 1, 2001
We report on the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlGaN thin films on sapphire substrates over a wide range of Al concentrations. The quality of these AlGaN materials was verified through a demonstration of high performance visible and solar-blind UV p–i–n photodiodes with peak cutoff wavelengths ranging from 227 to 364 nm. External quantum efficiencies for these devices reached as high as 69% with over five orders rejection ratio from the peak to visible wavelengths. reprint
436.  Novel Sb-based Materials for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 2000
437.  High Power Electrically Injected Mid-Infrared Interband Lasers Grown by LP-MOCVD
B. Lane and M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 2000
438.  Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-V Compound Semiconductors Which Have Made a Major Scientific and Technological Impact in the Past 20 Years
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 6 (6), pp.1344 - 1354 -- November 1, 2000
This paper reviews some of our pioneering contributions to the field of III–V compound semiconductor materials and low-dimensional optoelectronic devices. These contributions span from the ultraviolet (200 nm) up to the far-infrared (25 μm) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and have had a major scientific and technological impact on the semiconductor world in the past 20 years. reprint
439.  Low-threshold and high power (~9.0 μm) quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature
A. Matlis, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, K.J. Luo, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, A. Rybaltowski, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 77 (12)-- September 18, 2000
We report a low threshold current density and high power for λ ∼ 9 μm AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature. The threshold current density is 1.95 kA/cm² at 300 K and 0.61 kA/cm² at 80 K for 5 μs pulses at 200 Hz repetition rate. The peak output power is 700 mW at room temperature and 1.3 W at 80 K per two facets for cavity length is 3 mm with a stripe width of 20 μm. The characteristic temperature T0 is 185 °C. The slope efficiency is 450 and 800 mW/A at 300 and 80 K, respectively. In continuous wave operation, the output power is more than 150 mW at 80 K and 25 mW at 140 K. This high performance was achieved by improving the material growth and processing technology. reprint
440.  Very Long Wavelength Infrared Type-II Detectors Operating at 80K
H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, W.C. Mitchel, and Y.S. Park
Applied Physics Letters 77 (11)-- September 11, 2000
We report a demonstration of very long wavelength infrared detectors based on InAs/GaSb superlattices operating at T = 80 K. Detector structures with excellent material quality were grown on an optimized GaSb buffer layer on GaAs semi-insulating substrates. Photoconductive devices with 50% cutoff wavelength of λc = 17  μm showed a peak responsivity of about 100 mA/W at T = 80  K. Devices with 50% cutoff wavelengths up to λc = 22  μm were demonstrated at this temperature. Good uniformity was obtained over large areas even for the devices with very long cutoff wavelengths. reprint
441.  III-Nitride Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: A Survey of the Current Status and Future Trends of the Material and Device technology
P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Opto-Electronics Review 8 (3)-- September 1, 2000
During the past decade, group III - Nitride wide bandgap semiconductors have become the focus of extremely intensive reearch because of their exceptional physical properties and their high potential for use in countless numbers of applications. Nearly all aspects have been investigated, from the fundamental physical understanding of these materials to the development of the fabrication technology and demonstration of commercial devices. The purpose of this paper is to review the physical properties of III-Nitrides, their areas of application, the current status of the material technology (AlN, AlGaN, GaN, GaInN) including synthesis and processing. The state-of-the-art of III-Nitride material quality, as well as the devices which have been demonstrated, including electronic devices, AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors, ultraviolet photodiodes, visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet - blue laser diodes, will also be presented.
442.  Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (3 - 20 μm) Focal Plane Arrays: Monolithic Integration with Si-based Readout-integrated Circuitry for Low Cost and High Performance
M. Razeghi, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, J. Diaz, F. Guastavino, G. J. Brown, and Y.S. Park
-- July 30, 2000
443.  Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of GaN on Sapphire and Silicon Substrates for Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications
M. Razeghi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, D. Walker, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V. Kumar, J. Diaz, and F. Shahedipour
-- May 1, 2000
444.  High Power InAsSb/InAsSbP Electrical Injection Laser Diodes Emitting Between 3—5 μm
B. Lane, S. Tong, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, and M. Razeghi
-- May 1, 2000
445.  The Development of Nitride-based UV Photodetector
D. Walker and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 2000
446.  Growth and Characterization of Very Long Wavelength Type-II Infrared Detectors
H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
We report on the growth and characterization of type-II IR detectors with a InAs/GaSb superlattice active layer in the 15-19 μm wavelength range. The material was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The material was processed into photoconductive detectors using standard photolithography, dry etching, and metalization. The 50 percent cut-off wavelength of the detectors is about 15.5 μm with a responsivity of 90 mA/W at 80 K. The 90 percent-10 percent cut-off energy width of the responsivity is only 17 meV which is an indication of the uniformity of the superlattices. These are the best reported values for type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates. reprint
447.  Growth and Characterization of Type-II Non-Equilibrium Photovoltaic Detectors for Long Wavelength Infrared Range
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, A. Tahraoui, M. Razeghi, G. Brown and W. Mitche
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Growth and characterization of type-II detectors for mid-IR wavelength range is presented. The device has a p-i-n structure is designed to operate in the non-equilibrium mode with low tunneling current. The active layer is a short period InAs/GaSb superlattice. Wider bandgap p-type AlSb and n-type InAs layers are used to facilitate the extraction of both electronics and holes from the active layer for the first time. The performance of these devices were compared to the performance of devices grown at the same condition, but without the AlSb barrier layers. The processed devices with the AlSb barrier show a peak responsivity of about 1.2 A/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 1.1 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 8 μm at 80 K at zero bias. The details of the modeling, growth, and characterizations will be presented. reprint
448.  High-responsivity GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
M. Erdtmann, A. Matlis, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
We have studied the dependence of the well doping density in n-type GaInAs/InP quantum well IR photodetectors (QWIPs) grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three identical GaInAs/InP QWIP structures were grown with well sheet carrier densities of 1x1011 cm-2, 3x1011 cm-2, and 10x1011 cm-2; all three samples had very sharp spectral response at λ equals 9.0 μm. We find that there is a large sensitivity of responsivity, dark current, noise current, and detectivity with the well doping density. Measurements revealed that the lowest-doped samples had an extremely low responsivity relative to the doping concentration while the highest-doped sample had an excessively high dark current relative to doping. The middle-doped sample yielded the optimal results. This QWIP had a responsivity of 33.2 A/W and operated with a detectivity of 3.5x1010 cm·Hz½·W-1 at a bias of 0.75 V and temperature of 80 K. This responsivity is the highest value reported for any QWIP in the (lambda) equals 8-9 &mus;m range. Analysis is also presented explaining the dependence of the measured QWIP parameters to well doping density. reprint
449.  Growth and Optimization of GaInAsP/InP Material System for Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Applications
M. Erdtmann, J. Jiang, A. Matlis, A. Tahraoui, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Multi-quantum well structures of GaxIn1-xAsyP1-y were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for the fabrication of quantum well IR photodetectors. The thickness and composition of the wells was determined by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence experiments. The intersubband absorption spectrum of the Ga0.47In0.53As/InP, Ga0.38In0.62As0.80P0.20 (1.55 μm)/InP, and Ga0.27In0.73As0.57P0.43 (1.3 μm))/InP quantum wells are found to have cutoff wavelengths of 9.3 μm, 10.7 micrometers , and 14.2 μm respectively. These wavelengths are consistent with a conduction band offset to bandgap ratio of approximately 0.32. Facet coupled illumination responsivity and detectivity are reported for each composition. reprint
450.  Solar-Blind AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodetectors grown on LEO and non-LEO GaN
P. Sandvik, D. Walker, P. Kung, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, V. Kumar, X. Zhang, J. Diaz, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 3948, pp. 265 -- January 26, 2000
The III-Nitride material system is an excellent candidate for UV photodetector applications due to its wide, direct bandgaps and robust material nature. However, despite many inherent material advantages, the III-Nitride material system typically suffers from a large number of extended defects which degrade material quality and device performance. One technique aimed at reducing defect densities in these materials is lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO). In this work, we present a preliminary comparison between AlGaN UV, solar-blind p-i-n photodiodes fabricated form LEO GaN and non-LEO GaN. Improvements in both responsivity and rejection ratio are observed, however, further device improvements are necessary. For these, we focus on the optimization of the p- i-n structure and a reduction in contact resistivity to p- GaN and p-AlGaN layers. By improving the structure of the device, GaN p-i-n photodiodes were fabricated and demonstrate 86 percent internal quantum efficiency at 362 nm and a peak to visible rejection ratio of 105. Contact treatments have reduced the contact resistivity to p-GaN and p-AlGaN by over one order of magnitude form our previous results. reprint

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