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426.  Focal plane arrays based on quantum dot infrared photodetectors
Manijeh Razeghi; Wei Zhang; Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; John Szafraniec; Maho Taguchi; Bijan Movaghar
Proc. SPIE 5838, Nanotechnology II, 125 (June 28, 2005);-- June 28, 2005
Here we report the first demonstrations of infrared focal plane array (FPA) based on GaAs and InP based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). QDIPs are extension of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and are predicted to outperform QWIPs due to their potential advantages including normally incident absorption, higher responsivity and high temperature operation. Two material systems have been studied: InGaAs/InGaP QDIPs on GaAs substrates and InAs QDIP on InP substrates. An InGaAs/InGaP QDIP has been grown on GaAs substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 μm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 μm. A detectivity of 1.2x1011 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at T=77 K and bias of -0.9 V, which is the highest for QDIPs grown by MOCVD. An InAs QDIP structure has also been grown on InP substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse of normal incidence was observed at temperature up to 160K with a peak wavelength of 6.4 μm and cutoff wavelength of 6.6 μm. A detectivity of 1.0x1010 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at 77K at biases of -1.1 V, which is the first and highest detectivity reported for QDIP on InP substrate. 256×256 detector arrays were fabricated first time in the world for both the GaAs and InP based QDIPs. Dry etching and indium bump bonding were used to hybridize the arrays to a Litton readout integrated circuit. For the InGaAs/InGaP QDIP FPA, thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T=77K, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) was measured as 0.509K with a 300K background and f/2.3 optics. For the InP based QDIPs, thermal imaging was achieved at 77 K. reprint
427.  Uncooled operation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the mid- wavelength infrared range
Y. Wei, A. Hood, H. Yau, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow, V. Natha
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (23)-- June 6, 2005
We report high performance uncooled midwavelength infrared photodiodes based on interface-engineered InAs/GaSb superlattice. Two distinct superlattices were designed with a cutoff wavelength around 5 µm for room temperature and 77 K. The device quantum efficiency reached more than 25% with responsivity around 1 A/W. Detectivity was measured around 109 cm·Hz½/W at room temperature and 1.5×1013 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K under zero bias. The devices were without antireflective coating. The device quantum efficiency stays at nearly the same level within this temperature range. Additionally, Wannier–Stark oscillations in the Zener tunneling current were observed up to room temperature. reprint
428.  Short Wavelength (λ~ 4.3 μm) High-Performance Continuous-Wave Quantum-Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 17 (6)-- June 1, 2005
We report continuous-wave (CW) operation of a 4.3-μm quantum-cascade laser from 80 K to 313 K. For a high-reflectivity-coated 11-μm-wide and 4-mm-long laser, CW output powers of 1.34 W at 80 K and 26 mW at 313 K are achieved. At 298 K, the CW threshold current density of 1.5 kA/cm2 is observed with a CW output power of 166 mW and maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.47%. The CW emission wavelength varies from 4.15 μm at 80 K to 4.34 μm at 298 K, corresponding to a temperature-tuning rate of 0.87 nm/K. The beam full-width at half-maximum values for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 26° and 49° in CW mode, respectively. reprint
429.  Beam Steering in High-Power CW Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, C.S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J.R. Meyer, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (6)-- June 1, 2005
We report the light-current (L-I), spectral, and far-field characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with seven different wavelengths in the λ=4.3 to 6.3 μm range. In continuous-wave (CW) mode, the narrow-stripe (≈13 μm) epitaxial- side-up devices operated at temperatures up to 340 K, while at 295 K the CW output power was as high as 640 mW with a wallplug efficiency of 4.5%. All devices with λ≥4.7 μm achieved room-temperature CW operation, and at T=200 K several produced powers exceeding 1 W with ≈10% wallplug efficiency. The data indicated both spectral and spatial instabilities of the optical modes. For example, minor variations of the current often produced nonmonotonic hopping between spectra with envelopes as narrow as 5-10 nm or as broad as 200-250 nm. Bistable beam steering, by far-field angles of up to ±12° from the facet normal, also occurred, although even in extreme cases the beam quality never became worse than twice the diffraction limit. The observed steering is consistent with a theory for interference and beating between the two lowest order lateral modes. We also describe simulations of a wide-stripe photonic-crystal distributed-feedback QCL, which based on the current material quality is projected to emit multiple watts of CW power into a single-mode beam at T=200 K. reprint
430.  Short-wavelength ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on AlGaN
M. Razeghi; A. Yasan; R. McClintock; K. Mayes; P. Kung
2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO. 153-155 [CMI5] (2005)-- May 22, 2005
We review our progress toward realization of highly-efficient ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) based on high Al-composition AlxGa1-xN. Milliwatt level optical output powers have been measured at wavelengths as short as 247 nm.
431.  High Detectivity InAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown on InP by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19)-- May 9, 2005
We report a high-detectivity InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector. The InAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on InP substrates via low-pressure metal–organic chemical–vapor deposition. Highly uniform quantum dots with a density of 4×1010 cm2 were grown on a GaAs/InP matrix. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 160 K with a peak of 6.4 µm and cutoff of 6.6 µm. Very low dark currents and noise currents were obtained by inserting Al0.48In0.52As current blocking layers. The background-limited performance temperature was 100 K. A detectivity of 1.0×1010 cm·Hz½/W was obtained at 77 K with a bias of –1.1 V. reprint
432.  High performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid, long, and very long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, A. Hood, V. Yazdanpanah, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Orlando, FL, Vol. 5783, pp. 86-- March 28, 2005
We present our most recent results and review our progress over the past few years regarding InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for photovoltaic detectors and focal plane arrays. Empirical tight binding methods have been proven to be very effective and accurate in designing superlattices for various cutoff wavelengths from 3.7 µm up to 32 µm. Excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. High quality material growths were performed using an Intevac modular Gen II molecular beam epitaxy system. The material quality was characterized using x-ray, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence, etc. Detector performance confirmed high material electrical quality. Details of the demonstration of 256×256 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays are presented. reprint
433.  High-Performance Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes with Cutoff Wavelength Around 7 µm
Y. Wei, A. Hood, H. Yau, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow and V. Nathan
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (9)-- February 28, 2005
We report the most recent result in the area of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes that have a cutoff wavelength around 7 µm at 77 K. Superlattice with a period of 40 Å lattice matched to GaSb was realized using GaxIn1–x type interface engineering technique. Compared with significantly longer period superlattices, we have reduced the dark current density under reverse bias dramatically. For a 3 µm thick structure, using sulfide-based passivation, the dark current density reached 2.6×10–5 A/cm2 at –3 V reverse bias at 77 K. At this temperature the photodiodes have R0A of 9300 Ω·cm2 and a thermally limited zero bias detectivity of 1×1012 cm·Hz½/W. The 90%–10% cutoff energy width was only 16.5 meV. The devices did not show significant dark current change at 77 K after three months storage in the atmosphere. reprint
434.  High-Power CW Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.R. Meyer, W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, I. Vurgaftman, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2005
We report the cw operation of quantum cascade lasers that do not require cryogenic cooling and emit at λ = 4.7-6.2 µm. At 200 K, more than 1 W of output power is obtained from 12-µm-wide stripes, with a wall-plug efficiency (ηwall) near 10%. Room-temperature cw operation has also been demonstrated, with a maximum output power of 640 mW (ηwall = 4.5%) at 6 µm and 260 mW (ηwall = 2.3%) at 4.8 µm. Far-field characterization indicates that whereas the beam quality remains close to the diffraction limit in all of the tested lasers, in the devices emitting at 6.2 µm the beam tends to steer by as much as 5-10° degrees in either direction with varying temperature and pump current. reprint
435.  Back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors for imaging applications
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp.175-- January 22, 2005
Back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetectors and focal plane arrays are investigated. We initially study single-pixel devices and then discuss the hybridization to a read-out integrated circuit to form focal plane arrays for solar-blind UV imaging. reprint
436.  AlGaN-based deep UV light emitting diodes with peak emission below 255 nm
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 197-- January 22, 2005
We report on the growth and fabrication of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak emission of below 255 nm. In order to achieve such short wavelength UV LEDs, the Al mole fractions in the device layers should be greater than ~60%. This introdues serious challenges on the growth and doping of AlxGa1-xN epilayers. However, with the aid of a high-quality AlN template layer and refinement of the growth conditions we have been able to demonstrate UV LEDs emitting below 255 nm. reprint
437.  High performance LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and infrared focal plane array
Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Gin, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 309-- January 22, 2005
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattices grown on n-type GaSb substrate with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. reprint
438.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors
A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 316-- January 22, 2005
Leakage currents limit the operation of high performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode technology. Surface leakage current becomes a dominant limiting factor, especially at the scale of a focal plane array pixel (< 25 µm) and must be addressed. A reduction of the surface state density, unpinning the Fermi level at the surface, and appropriate termination of the semiconductor crystal are all aims of effective passivation. Recent work in the passivation of Type-II InAs\GaSb superlattice photodetectors with aqueous sulfur-based solutions has resulted in increased R0A products and reduced dark current densities by reducing the surface trap density. Additionally, photoluminescence of similarly passivated Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice and InAs GaSb bulk material will be discussed. reprint
439.  High performance InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP) on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, B. Movaghar, M. Razeghi, and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 326-- January 22, 2005
Inter-subband detectors such as quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been widely used in infrared detection. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have been predicted to have better performance than QWIPs including higher operation temperature and normal incidence detection. Here we report our recent results of InAs QDIP grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The device structures consist of multiple stacks of InAs quantum dots with InP barriers. High detectivities in the range of 1010cm·Hz1/2/W were obtained at 77K. The measurements at higher temperatures show better temperature dependent performance than QWIP. However, the performances of QDIPs are still far from the expected. One of the reasons is the low quantum efficiency due to the low fill factor of quantum dots layer. Resonant cavity enhanced QDIP has been studied to increase the quantum efficiency. Different schemes of mirrors using free carrier plasma and distributed Bragg reflector are discussed. reprint
440.  High performance InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetector achieved through doping level optimization
S. Tsao, K. Mi, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, H. Lim, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 334-- January 22, 2005
We report an InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with detectivity of 1.3x1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77K and 1.2x1010 ccm·Hz½/W at 120K. Modeling of the Quantum dot energy levels showed us that increased photoresponse could be obtained by doping the quantum dots to 4 electrons per dot instead of the usual 2 electrons per dot. This happens because the primary photocurrent transition is from the first excited state to a higher excited state. Increasing the quantum doping in our device yielded significant responsivity improvement and much higher detectivity as a result. This paper discusses the performance of this higher doping device and compares it to our previously reported device with lower doping. reprint
441.  GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays for long wavelength infrared detection
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 350-- January 22, 2005
Nanopillar devices have been fabricated from GaInAs/InP QWIP material grown by MOCVD. Using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching techniques, large, regular arrays of nanopillars with controllable diameters ranging from 150 nm to less than 40 nm have been reproducibly formed. Photoluminescence experiments demonstrate a strong peak wavelength blue shift for nanopillar structures compared to the as-grown quantum well material. Top and bottom metal contacts have been realized using a polyimide planarization and etchback procedure. I-V and noise measurements have been performed. Optical measurements indicate photoconductive response in selected nanopillar arrays. Device peak wavelength response occurs at about 8 µm with peak device responsivity of 420 mA/W. Peak detectivity of 3×108 cm·Hz½/W has been achieved at -1V bias and 30 K. reprint
442.  ZnO Thin Film Templates for GaN-based Devices
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung, M. Razeghi and G. Garry
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 412-- January 22, 2005
GaN-based optoelectronic devices are plagued by a tendency to non-radiative transitions linked to defects in the active layers. ZnO is promising as a substrate material for GaN because it has the same wurtzite structure and a relatively small lattice mismatch (~1.8%). In this paper, we discuss use of ZnO thin films as templates for GaN based LED. reprint
443.  Transport and Photodetection in Self-Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, K. Mi, and B. Movaghar
Nanotechnology, 16-- January 7, 2005
A great step forward in science and technology was made when it was discovered that lattice mismatch can be used to grow highly ordered, artificial atom-like structures called self-assembled quantum dots. Several groups have in the meantime successfully demonstrated useful infrared photodetection devices which are based on this technology. The new physics is fascinating, and there is no doubt that many new applications will be found when we have developed a better understanding of the underlying physical processes, and in particular when we have learned how to integrate the exciting new developments made in nanoscopic addressing and molecular self-assembly methods with semiconducting dots. In this paper we examine the scientific and technical questions encountered in current state of the art infrared detector technology and suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. Promoting simple physical pictures, we focus in particular on the problem of high temperature detector operation and discuss the origin of dark current, noise, and photoresponse. reprint
444.  320x256 Solar-Blind Focal Plane Arrays based on AlxGa1-xN
R. McClintock, K. Mayes, A. Yasan, D. Shiell, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (1)-- January 3, 2005
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet focal plane arrays operating at a wavelength of 280 nm. The electrical characteristics of the individual pixels are discussed, and the uniformity of the array is presented. The p–i–n photodiode array was hybridized to a 320×256 read-out integrated circuit entirely within our university research lab, and a working 320×256 camera was demonstrated. Several example solar-blind images from the camera are also provided. reprint
445.  Advanced Monolithic Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Integrated with Silicon Readout Integrated Circuit
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, C. Jelen and M.Z. Tidrow
Infrared Physics and Technology, 46 (3)-- January 1, 2005
Today, most infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilize a hybrid scheme. To achieve higher device reliability and lower cost, monolithic FPAs with Si based readout integrated circuits (ROICs) are the trend of the future development. In this paper, two approaches for monolithic FPAs are proposed: double sided integration and selective epitaxy integration. For comparison, the fabrication process for hybrid quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) FPAs are also described. Many problems, such as the growth of QWIPs on Si substrate and processing incompatibility between Si and III–V semiconductors, need to be solved before monolithic FPAs can be realized. Experimental work on GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si is given in this paper. A record high detectivity of 2.3×109 jones was obtained for one QWIP-on-Si detector at 77 K. reprint
446.  Continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.8 µm quantum-cascade lasers at room temperature
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 85 (12)-- September 20, 2004
Continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ~4.8 µm is reported up to a temperature of 323 K. Accurate control of layer thickness and strain-balanced material composition is demonstrated using x-ray diffraction. cw output power is reported to be in excess of 370 mW per facet at 293 K, and 38 mW per facet at 323 K. Room-temperature average power measurements are demonstrated with over 600 mW per facet at 50% duty cycle with over 300 mW still observed at 100% (cw) duty cycle. reprint
447.  Review of III-Nitride Optoelectronic Materials for light Emission and Detection
M. Razeghi, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, and P. Kung
Physica Status Solidi C S141 - S148-- September 10, 2004
We review the significant achievements relating to optoelectronic devices based on III-nitrides at the center for quantum devices (CQD). Based on GaN/InGaN multiple-quantum well structures, we demonstrated blue laser diodes at a wavelength of 405 nm. This achievement was particularly significant at the time, because while no defect reduction technique was used, a fairly low threshold current density was achieved (3.8 kA/cm²). In the past few years, however, the interest has shifted towards shorter wavelength light emitters, i.e. ultraviolet LEDs and LDs. Lower crystalline quality and unsatisfactory doping levels of AlGaN compound semiconductors posed serious challenges en route to the realization of UV light emitters. However, steady progress in the growth of AlGaN and AlN epilayers made it possible to overcome some of the difficulties. To date, we have been able to demonstrate UV LEDs at wavelengths as short as 265 nm (corresponding to 45% Al in AlxGa1-xN) with optical output powers of over 5 mW. We have addressed the n-type AlGaN doping problem by using a Si-In co-doped scheme. We also employed high-quality AlGaN/AlN superlattice templates for the reduction of defects. We have also demonstrated 280 nm UV LEDs with output powers of over 6 mW and external quantum efficiencies of over 0.25%. Despite all the success in the realization of short-wavelength UV LEDs, UV laser diodes at these short wavelengths are yet to be realized. The main difficulties are the low material quality, high device resistance leading to excessive heating of the device, realization of smooth cavity mirrors, and issues related to the cracking of the material. We have also demonstrated different types of photodetectors in the UV range of the spectrum: photoconductors, MSM photodetector, Schottky barrier photodetectors, and p-i-n photodiodes to name a few. The most promising type of photodetector for realization of UV imaging focal plane arrays is the p-i-n photodiode. Realization of high-efficiency AlGaN-based p-i-n photodiodes becomes more difficult when considering the need for the collection of the light from the backside of the substrate. However, similar to our back-emission UV LED structure, we have demonstrated back-illuminated p-i-n solar-blind photodiodes with external quantum efficiencies as high as 68% under no applied bias and 74% under -5 V of bias. reprint
448.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (13)-- April 29, 2004
We report a demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The middle-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown via low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W was achieved at T = 95 K and a bias of –1.4 V. The background limited temperature of our QDIP was 140 K with a 45° field of view. A 256×256 detector array was fabricated with dry etching, and hybridized to a Litton readout chip by indium bumps. Thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T = 77 K, the noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 0.509 K with a 300 K background and f/2.3 optics. reprint
449.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- April 22, 2004
We report a high detectivity middle-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The InGaAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on an InGaP matrix via low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures above 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 µm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 µm. The background limited performance temperature was 140 K, and this was attributed to the super low dark current observed in this QDIP. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art quantum well infrared photodetectors in a similar wavelength range, was obtained for this InGaAs/InGaP QDIP at both T = 77 K and T = 95 K at biases of –1.6 and –1.4 V, reprint
450.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (13)-- April 5, 2004reprint

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