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451.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. reprint
452.  Ultraviolet Detector Materials and Devices Studied by Femtosecond Nonlinear Optical Techniques
M. Wraback, H. Shen, P. Kung, M. Razeghi, J.C. Carrano, T. Li, and J.C. Campbell
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Femtosecond nonlinear optical techniques have been employed in the study of carrier dynamics and transport in UV detector materials. Visible femtosecond pulses derived from the signal beam of a 250 kHz regenerative amplifier-pumped optical parametric amplifier were frequency doubled to obtain pulses tunable from 250 nm to 375 nm. Time-resolved reflectivity experiments indicate that the room-temperature carrier lifetime in GaN grown by double lateral epitaxial overgrowth is about 3 times longer than that of GaN grown on sapphire without benefit of this technique. The electron velocity-field characteristics and saturation velocity in GaN have been obtained form time-resolved studies of electroabsorption in a GaN p-i-n diode. The peak steady- state velocity of 1.9x107 cm/s in this device occurs at 225 kV/cm. Time-resolved transmission measurements have been used to monitor ultrafast carrier relaxation phenomena in a thin AlGaN layer with bandgap in the solar blind region of the spectrum. Excitation intensity and wavelength dependent studies of the photoinduced bleaching decays suggest that they are primarily governed by trapping in a high density of sub-bandgap defect levels. reprint
453.  Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength
D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X.H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (4)-- January 24, 2000
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1–xN photodiodes (x~0.70) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The peak responsivity for –5 V bias is 0.11 A/W at 232 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90%. The device response drops four orders of magnitude by 275 nm and remains at low response for the entire near-ultraviolet and visible spectrum. Improvements were made to the device design including a semitransparent Ni/Au contact layer and a GaN:Mg cap layer, which dramatically increased device response by enhancing the carrier collection efficiency. reprint
454.  Tl incorporation in InSb and lattice contraction of In1-xTlxSb
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (3)-- January 17, 2000
Ternary In1−xTlxSb thin films are grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in the high In composition region. Infrared photoresponse spectra of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers show a clear shift toward a longer wavelength compared to that of InSb. Tl incorporation is confirmed by Auger electron spectroscopy. In contrast to the theoretical expectation, high resolution x-ray diffraction study reveals that the lattice of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers is contracted by the incorporation of Tl. As more Tl is incorporated, the lattice contraction is observed to increase gradually in the experimental range. A possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed. Our experimental results suggest that the Tl incorporation behavior in In1−xTlxSb differs from that of other group III impurities in III antimonides. reprint
455.  Advanced Semiconductor Lasers in the 3—10 μm Wavelength Range
M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 2000
456.  Future Trends of III-Nitrides Using Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, X. Zhang, K. Mi, D. Walker, V. Kumar, and J. Diaz
-- December 14, 1999
457.  Pulse Autocorrelation Measurements Based on Two- and Three-Photon Conductivity in a GaN Photodiode
A. Streltsov, K.D. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 75 (24)-- December 13, 1999
We characterize the performance of a GaN p-i-n photodiode as a nonlinear sensor for second- and third-order femtosecond pulse autocorrelation measurements in the visible and near-infrared regimes, respectively. The two- and three-photon absorption coefficients for GaN are also determined. reprint
458.  Kinetics of Quantum States in Quantum Cascade Lasers: Device Design Principles and fabrication
M. Razeghi
-- October 1, 1999
459.  Uncooled InAs/GaSb Type-II infrared detectors grown on GaAs substrate for the 8–12 μm atmospheric window
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. Brown, and W. Mitchel
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 35 (7)-- July 1, 1999
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2×108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays reprint
460.  Exploration of Novel InSbBi Alloy for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
461.  Growth and characterization of InGaAs/InGaP quantum dots for mid-infrared photodetectors
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
462.  Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of High Power Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (808 nm) Laser Diodes
H.J. Yi and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
463.  InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice injection lasers operating at 4.0 μm grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
B. Lane, Z. Wu, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (23)-- June 7, 1999
We report high power mid-infrared electrical injection operation of laser diodes based on InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices grown on InAs substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The broad-area laser diodes with 100 μm aperture and 1800 μm cavity length demonstrate peak output powers of 546 and 94 mW in pulsed and cw operation respectively at 100 K with a threshold current density as low as 100 A/cm². reprint
464.  Development of High-performance III-Nitride-based Semiconductor Devices
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, and P. Sandvik
-- June 1, 1999
465.  Low-Threshold 7.3 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken, A. Matlis, A. Rybaltowski, Z. Wu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (19)-- May 19, 1999
We report low-threshold 7.3 μm superlattice-based quantum cascade lasers. The threshold current density is 3.4 kA/cm² at 300 K and 1.25 kA/cm² at 79 K in pulsed mode for narrow (∼20 μm), 2 mm-long laser diodes. The characteristic temperature (T0) is 210 K. The slope efficiencies are 153 and 650 mW/A at 300 and 100 K, respectively. Power output is in excess of 100 mW at 300 K. Laser far-field intensity measurements give divergence angles of 64° and 29° in the growth direction and in the plane of the quantum wells, respectively. Far-field simulations show excellent agreement with the measured results. reprint
466.  Exciton localization in group-III nitride quantum wells
V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 59 (15)-- May 15, 1999
Exciton density of states broadened by compositional disorder in the group-III nitride quantum well is calculated. The excitonic photoluminescence linewidth is estimated and related to the material parameters of the alloy for two limiting cases of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional excitons in the quantum well. It is shown that the effect of the compositional fluctuations depends on dimensionality of the exciton: the 2D excitons are more sensitive to the inhomogeneities than 3D ones. The broad near-band-gap energy states distribution for quasi-two-dimensional excitons is consistent with the experimental evidence of the spontaneous and stimulated emissions from excitonic states localized on compositional fluctuations. reprint
467.  Aluminum gallium nitride short-period superlattices doped with magnesium
A. Saxler, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (14)-- April 9, 1999
Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short-period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. reprint
468.  High power asymmetrical InAsSb/InAsSbP/AlAsSb double heterostructure lasers emitting at 3.4 μm
D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Mohseni, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (9)-- March 1, 1999
Midinfrared lasers with an asymmetrical InPAsSb/InAsSb/AlAsSb double heterostructure are reported. Using the asymmetrical double heterostructure, p- and n-cladding layers are separately optimized; high energy-gap AlAsSb (Eg ≈ 1.5 eV) for the p-type cladding layer to reduce the leakage current, and thus to increase To, and low energy-gap InPAsSb (Eg ≈ 0.5 eV) for the n-cladding layer to have low turn-on voltage. 100-μm-width broad-area lasers with 1000 μm cavity length exhibited peak output powers of 1.88 W in pulse and 350 mW in continuous wave modes per two facets at T=80 K with To of 54 K and turn-on voltage of 0.36 V. Maximum peak output powers up to 6.7 W were obtained from a laser bar of total aperture of 400 μm width and cavity length of 1000 μm, with a differential efficiency of 34% and far-field beam divergence narrower than 40° at 80 K. reprint
469.  Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides
D.N. Hahn, G.T. Kiehne, G.K.L. Wong, J.B. Ketterson, P. Kung, A. Saxler and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (5)-- March 1, 1999
Phase-matched optical second-harmonic (SH) generation was observed in GaN and AlN slab waveguides. Phase matching was achieved by waveguide modal dispersion. By tuning the output wavelength of an optical parametric amplifier, several phased-matched SH peaks were observed in the visible spectrum covering blue to red wavelengths. The peak positions are in agreement with the values calculated using the dispersive refractive indices of the film and substrate materials. reprint
470.  AlGaInAs/InP-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
471.  Novel InTlSb Alloy for Uncooled Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
472.  Recent Advance in Semiconductor Mid-Infrared Lasers Emitting at 3–12 μm
M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
473.  High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes
E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (8)-- February 22, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1−xN p-i-n photodiodes (0 < x < 0.15) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible rejection of six orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 365 to 338 nm. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances, the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. This behavior is justified by the strong frequency dependence of the device capacitance. By an admittance analysis, we conclude that speed is not limited by deep levels, but by substitutional Mg capture and emission time. reprint
474.  High-speed, low-noise metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN
D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F.J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (5)-- February 1, 1999
We present the fabrication and characterization of nonintentionally doped GaN and GaN:Mg Schottky metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Low-leakage, Schottky contacts were made with Pt/Au. The devices are visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of about five orders of magnitude. The response times of the MSM devices were <10 ns and about 200 ns for GaN and GaN:Mg, respectively. The noise power spectral density remains below the background level of the system (10−24  A²/Hz) up to 5 V, for the undoped GaN MSM detector. reprint
475.  Recent achievement in MIR high power injection laser diodes (3 to 5 μm)
M. Razeghi, D. Wu, B. Lane, A. Rybaltowski, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and H. Yi
-- February 1, 1999

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