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26.  
Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 74 (20)-- November 15, 2006
In this paper we present a theory of diffusion and recombination in QDIPs which is an attempt to explain the recently reported values of gain in these devices. We allow the kinetics to encompass both the diffusion and capture rate limited regimes of carrier relaxation using rigorous random walk and diffusion methods. The photoconductive gains are calculated and compared with the experimental values obtained from InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs and InAs/InP QDIPs using the generation-recombination noise analysis. reprint
 
27.  
High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. reprint
 
28.  Quantum Dots in GaInP/GaInAs/GaAs for Infrared Sensing
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, and A.A. Quivy
Advances in Science and Technology 51-- June 4, 2006
Quantum dots grown by epitaxial self-assembly via Stranski- Krastanov growth mode have many favorable properties for infrared sensing. Because of their very small size and three-dimensional confinement, the electronic energy levels are quantized and discrete. These quantum effects lead to a unique property, “phonon bottleneck”, which might enable the high operating temperature of infrared sensing which usually requires cryogenic cooling. Here we report a focal plane array (FPA) based on an epitaxial self-assembled quantum dot infrared detector (QDIP). The device structure containing self-assembled In0.68Ga0.32As quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2 was grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). Using different structures, we successfully developed QDIPs with a peak photoresponse around 5 μm and 9 μm. High peak detectivities were achieved at 77 K from both QDIPs. By stacking both device structures, we demonstrated a two-color QDIP whose peak detection wavelength could be tuned from 5 μm to 9 μm by changing the bias. 256×256 detector arrays based on 5 μm and 9 μm-QDIPs were fabricated with standard photolithography, dry etching and hybridization to a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). We demonstrated thermal imaging from our FPAs based on QDIPs.
 
29.  
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060I-1-- April 21, 2006
We report our recent results about mid-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A very high responsivity and a very low dark current were obtained. A high peak detectivity of the order of 3×1012 Jones was achieved at 77 K. The temperature dependent device performance was also investigated. The improved temperature insensitivity compared to QWIPs was attributed to the properties of quantum dots. The device showed a background limited performance temperature of 220 K with a 45° field of view and 300K background. reprint
 
30.  
High-detectivity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
High-detectivity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
J. Szafraniec, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A.A. Quivy, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (121102)-- March 20, 2006
A mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InGaAs quantum dots buried in an InGaP matrix and deposited on a GaAs substrate was demonstrated. Its photoresponse at T=77 K was measured to be around 4.7 μm with a cutoff at 5.5 μm. Due to the high peak responsivity of 1.2 A/W and low dark-current noise of the device, a specific peak detectivity of 1.1 x 1012 cm·Hz½·W−1 was achieved at −0.9 V bias reprint
 
31.  InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Photodetector with a High Detectivity
H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270N-- January 23, 2006
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently been considered as strong candidates for numerous applications such as night vision, space communication, gas analysis and medical diagnosis involving middle and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR respectively) operation. This is due to their unique properties arising from their 3-dimensional confinement potential that provides a discrete density of states. They are expected to outperform quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a consequence of their natural sensitivity to normal incident radiation, their higher responsivity and their higher-temperature operation. So far, most of the QDIPs reported in the literature were based on the InAs/GaAs system and were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here, we report on the growth of a high detectivity InGaAs/InGaP QDIP grown on a GaAs substrate using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). reprint
 
32.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. reprint
 
33.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (9)-- August 29, 2005reprint
 
34.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 72-- August 17, 2005
We present data and calculations and examine the factors that determine the detectivities in self-assembled InAs and InGaAs based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). We investigate a class of devices that combine good wavelength selectivity with “high detectivity.” We study the factors that limit the temperature performance of quantum dot detectors. For this we develop a formalism to evaluate the optical absorption and the electron transport properties. We examine the performance limiting factors and compare theory with experimental data. We find that the notion of a phonon bottleneck does not apply to large-diameter lenslike quantum dots, which have many closely spaced energy levels. The observed strong decrease of responsivity with temperature is ultimately due to a rapid thermal cascade back into the ground states. High temperature performance is improved by engineering the excited state to be near the continuum. The good low temperature (77 K) performance in strongly bound QDIPs is shown to be due to the high gain and the low noise achievable in these micron size devices. reprint
 
35.  Focal plane arrays based on quantum dot infrared photodetectors
Manijeh Razeghi; Wei Zhang; Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; John Szafraniec; Maho Taguchi; Bijan Movaghar
Proc. SPIE 5838, Nanotechnology II, 125 (June 28, 2005);-- June 28, 2005
Here we report the first demonstrations of infrared focal plane array (FPA) based on GaAs and InP based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). QDIPs are extension of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and are predicted to outperform QWIPs due to their potential advantages including normally incident absorption, higher responsivity and high temperature operation. Two material systems have been studied: InGaAs/InGaP QDIPs on GaAs substrates and InAs QDIP on InP substrates. An InGaAs/InGaP QDIP has been grown on GaAs substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 μm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 μm. A detectivity of 1.2x1011 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at T=77 K and bias of -0.9 V, which is the highest for QDIPs grown by MOCVD. An InAs QDIP structure has also been grown on InP substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse of normal incidence was observed at temperature up to 160K with a peak wavelength of 6.4 μm and cutoff wavelength of 6.6 μm. A detectivity of 1.0x1010 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at 77K at biases of -1.1 V, which is the first and highest detectivity reported for QDIP on InP substrate. 256×256 detector arrays were fabricated first time in the world for both the GaAs and InP based QDIPs. Dry etching and indium bump bonding were used to hybridize the arrays to a Litton readout integrated circuit. For the InGaAs/InGaP QDIP FPA, thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T=77K, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) was measured as 0.509K with a 300K background and f/2.3 optics. For the InP based QDIPs, thermal imaging was achieved at 77 K. reprint
 
36.  High Detectivity InAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown on InP by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19)-- May 9, 2005
We report a high-detectivity InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector. The InAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on InP substrates via low-pressure metal–organic chemical–vapor deposition. Highly uniform quantum dots with a density of 4×1010 cm2 were grown on a GaAs/InP matrix. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 160 K with a peak of 6.4 µm and cutoff of 6.6 µm. Very low dark currents and noise currents were obtained by inserting Al0.48In0.52As current blocking layers. The background-limited performance temperature was 100 K. A detectivity of 1.0×1010 cm·Hz½/W was obtained at 77 K with a bias of –1.1 V. reprint
 
37.  High performance InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP) on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, B. Movaghar, M. Razeghi, and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 326-- January 22, 2005
Inter-subband detectors such as quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been widely used in infrared detection. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have been predicted to have better performance than QWIPs including higher operation temperature and normal incidence detection. Here we report our recent results of InAs QDIP grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The device structures consist of multiple stacks of InAs quantum dots with InP barriers. High detectivities in the range of 1010cm·Hz1/2/W were obtained at 77K. The measurements at higher temperatures show better temperature dependent performance than QWIP. However, the performances of QDIPs are still far from the expected. One of the reasons is the low quantum efficiency due to the low fill factor of quantum dots layer. Resonant cavity enhanced QDIP has been studied to increase the quantum efficiency. Different schemes of mirrors using free carrier plasma and distributed Bragg reflector are discussed. reprint
 
38.  High performance InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetector achieved through doping level optimization
S. Tsao, K. Mi, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, H. Lim, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 334-- January 22, 2005
We report an InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with detectivity of 1.3x1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77K and 1.2x1010 ccm·Hz½/W at 120K. Modeling of the Quantum dot energy levels showed us that increased photoresponse could be obtained by doping the quantum dots to 4 electrons per dot instead of the usual 2 electrons per dot. This happens because the primary photocurrent transition is from the first excited state to a higher excited state. Increasing the quantum doping in our device yielded significant responsivity improvement and much higher detectivity as a result. This paper discusses the performance of this higher doping device and compares it to our previously reported device with lower doping. reprint
 
39.  Transport and Photodetection in Self-Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, K. Mi, and B. Movaghar
Nanotechnology, 16-- January 7, 2005
A great step forward in science and technology was made when it was discovered that lattice mismatch can be used to grow highly ordered, artificial atom-like structures called self-assembled quantum dots. Several groups have in the meantime successfully demonstrated useful infrared photodetection devices which are based on this technology. The new physics is fascinating, and there is no doubt that many new applications will be found when we have developed a better understanding of the underlying physical processes, and in particular when we have learned how to integrate the exciting new developments made in nanoscopic addressing and molecular self-assembly methods with semiconducting dots. In this paper we examine the scientific and technical questions encountered in current state of the art infrared detector technology and suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. Promoting simple physical pictures, we focus in particular on the problem of high temperature detector operation and discuss the origin of dark current, noise, and photoresponse. reprint
 
40.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (13)-- April 29, 2004
We report a demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The middle-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown via low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W was achieved at T = 95 K and a bias of –1.4 V. The background limited temperature of our QDIP was 140 K with a 45° field of view. A 256×256 detector array was fabricated with dry etching, and hybridized to a Litton readout chip by indium bumps. Thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T = 77 K, the noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 0.509 K with a 300 K background and f/2.3 optics. reprint
 
41.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- April 22, 2004
We report a high detectivity middle-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The InGaAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on an InGaP matrix via low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures above 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 µm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 µm. The background limited performance temperature was 140 K, and this was attributed to the super low dark current observed in this QDIP. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art quantum well infrared photodetectors in a similar wavelength range, was obtained for this InGaAs/InGaP QDIP at both T = 77 K and T = 95 K at biases of –1.6 and –1.4 V, reprint
 
42.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (13)-- April 5, 2004reprint
 
43.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (12)-- March 29, 2004reprint
 
44.  Comparison of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 340 nm grown on GaN substrate and sapphire
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, S.R. Darvish, H. Zhang, P. Kung, M. Razeghi, S.K. Lee and J.Y. Han
Applied Physics Letters, 81 (12)-- September 16, 2002
Based on AlInGaN/AlInGaN multiquantum wells, we compare properties of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission at 340 nm grown on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown GaN substrate and on sapphire. For the LED grown on GaN substrate, a differential resistance as low as 13 Ω and an output power of more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the same structure grown on sapphire are achieved. Due to higher thermal conductivity of GaN, output power of the LEDs saturates at higher injection currents compared to the devices grown on sapphire. reprint
 
45.  High power InAsSbP based electrical injection laser diodes emitting between 3-5 μm
W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
-- June 3, 2002
 
46.  Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth of GaN on Sapphire and Silicon Substrates for Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications
M. Razeghi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, D. Walker, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V. Kumar, J. Diaz, and F. Shahedipour
-- May 1, 2000
 
47.  Solar-Blind AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodetectors grown on LEO and non-LEO GaN
P. Sandvik, D. Walker, P. Kung, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, V. Kumar, X. Zhang, J. Diaz, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 3948, pp. 265 -- January 26, 2000
The III-Nitride material system is an excellent candidate for UV photodetector applications due to its wide, direct bandgaps and robust material nature. However, despite many inherent material advantages, the III-Nitride material system typically suffers from a large number of extended defects which degrade material quality and device performance. One technique aimed at reducing defect densities in these materials is lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO). In this work, we present a preliminary comparison between AlGaN UV, solar-blind p-i-n photodiodes fabricated form LEO GaN and non-LEO GaN. Improvements in both responsivity and rejection ratio are observed, however, further device improvements are necessary. For these, we focus on the optimization of the p- i-n structure and a reduction in contact resistivity to p- GaN and p-AlGaN layers. By improving the structure of the device, GaN p-i-n photodiodes were fabricated and demonstrate 86 percent internal quantum efficiency at 362 nm and a peak to visible rejection ratio of 105. Contact treatments have reduced the contact resistivity to p-GaN and p-AlGaN by over one order of magnitude form our previous results. reprint
 
48.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. reprint
 
49.  Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength
D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X.H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (4)-- January 24, 2000
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1–xN photodiodes (x~0.70) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The peak responsivity for –5 V bias is 0.11 A/W at 232 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90%. The device response drops four orders of magnitude by 275 nm and remains at low response for the entire near-ultraviolet and visible spectrum. Improvements were made to the device design including a semitransparent Ni/Au contact layer and a GaN:Mg cap layer, which dramatically increased device response by enhancing the carrier collection efficiency. reprint
 
50.  Future Trends of III-Nitrides Using Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, X. Zhang, K. Mi, D. Walker, V. Kumar, and J. Diaz
-- December 14, 1999
 

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