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476.  Roadmap of Semiconductor Infrared Lasers and Detectors for the 21st Century
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
Since the first discovery, semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors have found many various applications in military, communications, medical, and industry sections. In this paper, the current status of semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors will be reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods and techniques is discussed later. Some basic physical limitations of current technology are studied and the direction to overcome these problems will be suggested. reprint
 
477.  Multi-color 4–20 μm In-P-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
In order to tune the wavelength of lattice-matched QWIP detectors over the range from 4 - 20 &mum, new designs are demonstrated for the first time which combine InGaAlAs and InGaAsP layers lattice-matched to InP and grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate the first long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors using the lattice-matched n-doped InGaAlAs/InP materials system. Samples with AlAs mole fractions of 0.0, 0.1, and 0.15 result in cutoff wavelengths of 8.5, 13.3, and 19.4 μm, respectively. A 45 degree facet coupled illumination responsivity of R equals 0.37 A/W and detectivity of D*(λ) equals 1x109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at T = 77 K, for a cutoff wavelength λc equals 13.3 μm have been achieved. Based on the measured intersubband photoresponse wavelength, a null conduction band offset is expected for In0.52Ga0.21Al0.27As/InP heterojunctions. We also report quantum well infrared photodetector structures of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As grown on InP substrate with photoresponse at 4 μm suitable for mid-wavelength infrared detectors. These detectors exhibit a constant peak responsivity of 30 mA/W independent of temperature in the range from T equals 77 K to T equals 200 K. Combining these two materials, we report the first multispectral detectors that combine lattice-matched quantum wells of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InP. Utilizing two contacts, a voltage tunable detector with (lambda) p equals 8 micrometer at a bias of V equals 5 V and λp equals 4 μm at V equals 10 V is demonstrated. reprint
 
478.  AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodiodes on Sapphire Substrates
D. Walker, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, I.H. Lee, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1-xN p-i-n photodiodes (0.05 ≤ to X ≤ 0.30) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible-rejection of about four orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 350 nm to 291 nm. They also exhibit a constant responsivity for five decades (30 mW/m² to 1 kW/m²) of optical power density. Using capacitance measurements, the values for the acceptor concentration in the p-AlxGa1-xN region and the unintentional donor concentration in the intrinsic region are found. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. reprint
 
479.  Electrical Characterization of AlxGa1-xN for UV Photodetector Applications
A. Saxler, M. Ahoujja, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
Ultraviolet photodetectors have many military and commercial applications. However, for many of these applications, the photodetectors must be solar blind. This means that the photodetectors must have a cutoff wavelength of less than about 270 nm. Semiconductor based devices would then need energy gaps of over 4.6 eV. In the AlxGa1-xN system, the aluminum mole fraction, x, required is over 40%. As the energy gap is increased, doping becomes much more difficult, especially p-type doping. This report is a study of the electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN to enable better control of the doping. Magnesium doped p-type AlxGa1-xN has been studied using high-temperature Hall effect measurements. The acceptor ionization energy has been found to increase substantially with the aluminum content. Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were also grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short- period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. Silicon doped n-type films have also been studied. reprint
 
480.  Schottky MSM Photodetectors on GaN Films Grown on Sapphire by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
P. Kung, D. Walker, P. Sandvik, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, I.H. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the growth and characterization of Schottky based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN films. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN was carried out on basal plane sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and exhibited lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates. The spectral responsivity, the dependence on bias voltage, on incident optical power, and the time response of these photodetectors have been characterized. Two detector orientations were investigated: one with the interdigitated finger pattern parallel and the other perpendicular to the underlying SiOx mask stripes. reprint
 
481.  Growth of InAsSb Alloys on GaAs and Si Substrates for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.D. Kim, H. Mohseni, J.S. Wojkowski, J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
In this paper, we report on the growth and characterization of InAsSb alloys on GaAs and Si substrates for uncooled infrared photodetector applications. The fabrication and characterization of photodetectors from the grown layers are also reported. The photovoltaic and photoconductive devices were grown on (100) GaAs and Si substrates, respectively, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The composition of InAs>sub>1-xSbx layers was 0.95 in both cases and cut-off wavelength of 7-8 μm has been obtained. At 300 K, the photovoltaic detectors on GaAs substrates resulted in a sharp cut-off wavelength of 7.5 μm with a peak responsivity as high as 0.32 V/W at 6.5 micrometer. For the photoconductive detectors on Si substrates, cut-off wavelength of 8 μm has been observed with a responsivity of 6.3x10-2 V/W at 7 μm under an electric field of 420 V/m. reprint
 
482.  Demonstration of InAsSb/AlInSb Double Heterostructure Detectors for Room Temperature Operation in the 5–8 μm Wavelength Range
J.S. Wojkowski, H. Mohseni, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the first demonstration of InAsSb/AlInSb double heterostructure detectors for room temperature operation. The structures were grown in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy reactor on semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The material was processed to 400x400 micrometer mesas using standard photolithography, etching, and metallization techniques. No optical immersion or surface passivation was used. The photovoltaic detectors showed a cutoff wavelength at 8 micrometer at 300 K. The devices showed a high quantum efficiency of 40% at 7 μm at room temperature. A responsivity of 300 mA/W was measured at 7 μm under a reverse bias of 0.25 V at 300 K resulting in a Johnson noise limited detectivity of 2x108 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
 
483.  Characteristics of Self-Assembled InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Mid-Infrared Photoconductive Detectors Grown by Low Pressure MOCVD
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the first self-assembled InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot intersubband infrared photoconductive detectors (QDIPs) grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The InGaAs quantum dots were constructed on an InGaP matrix as self assembling in Stranski-Krastanow growth mode in optimum growth conditions. The detector structure was prepared for single layer and multi-stacked quantum dots for active region. Normal incident photoconductive response was observed at a peak wavelength of 5.5 μm with a high responsivity of 130 mA/W, and a detectivity of 4.74 X 107 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K for multi-stack QDIP. Low temperature photoresponse of the single quantum dot photodetector was characterized. Peak response was obtained between 16 K and 60 K. The detailed dark current noise measurements were carried on single and multistack quantum dot infrared detectors. High photoconductive gain as 7.6 x 103 biased at 0.5 V results in increasing the intersubband carrier relaxation time as two order of magnitude compared quantum well infrared photodetectors. reprint
 
484.  Internal Stress Around Micropipes in 6H-SiC Substrates
H. Ohsato, T. Kato, T. Okuda and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
6H-SiC single crystals are expected to be suitable substrates for thin film growth of the wide bandgap semiconductor (GaN, because it has a small lattice mismatch with GaN. Moreover, SiC single crystals are also expected for high-power and high- temperature electric applications because of its wide band gap, high breakdown voltage, high thermal conductivity and high temperature stability. Single crystals with large size used for electronic devices can be grown on seed crystals only by the modified Lely method based on sublimation deposition. But, single crystals have serious defects so called micropipes. These micropipes penetrate almost along the [001] direction. The internal strain around micropipes was investigated using the polarizing optical microscope for the purpose of clarifying the formation mechanisms and decreasing the amount of micropipes. A special interference figure was found around a micropipe under the crossed polars on the polarizing microscope. In this work, the special interference figure around micropipes due to internal stress was explained, and the magnitude and distribution of the stress was measured by means of photoelasticity and the mapping of Raman spectra. reprint
 
485.  Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates
P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (4)-- January 25, 1999
We report the lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on (00.1) Al2O3 and (111) Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth on Si substrates was possible after achieving quasi-monocrystalline GaN template films on (111) Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to assess the quality of the lateral epitaxial overgrown films. Lateral growth rates more than five times as high as vertical growth rates were achieved for both lateral epitaxial overgrowths of GaN on sapphire and silicon substrates. reprint
 
486.  Relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade laser
S. Slivken, V. Litvinov, M. Razeghi, and J.R. Meyer
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (2)-- January 15, 1999
Relaxation kinetics in a quantum cascade intersubband laser are investigated. Distribution functions and gain spectra of a three-subband double-quantum-well active region are obtained as a function of temperature and injection current. The potentially important role of the nonequilibrium phonons at lasing threshold is shown and discussed in details. It is shown that the threshold current is strongly dependent of the power dissipated in the active region in steady state. The numerical calculations for an 8.5 μm laser illustrate the general issues of relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade lasers. Temperature dependence of the threshold current is obtained in a good agreement with the experiments. reprint
 
487.  High Temperature Continuous Wave Operation of ~8 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, A. Matlis, C. Jelen, A. Rybaltowski, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (2)-- January 11, 1999
We report single-mode continuous-wave operation of a λ∼8 μm quantum cascade laser at 140 K. The threshold current density is 4.2 kA/cm² at 300 K in pulsed mode and 2.5 kA/cm² at 140 K in continuous wave for 2 mm long index-guided laser cavities of 20 μm width. Wide stripe (W ∼ 100 μm), index-guided lasers from the same wafer in pulsed operation demonstrate an average T0 of 210 K with other wafers demonstrating a T0 as high as 290 K for temperatures from 80 to 300 K. This improvement in high-temperature performance is a direct result of three factors: excellent material quality, a low-loss waveguide design, and a low-leakage index-guided laser geometry. reprint
 
488.  Band-gap narrowing and potential fluctuation in Si-doped GaN
I.H. Lee, J.J. Lee, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (1)-- January 4, 1999
We investigate the optical properties of two sets of Si-doped GaN epitaxial layers with different degree of compensation. The electron concentration dependence of the band-gap energy measured by photoluminescence is interpreted as band-gap narrowing effect and evaluated by a simple relation. The photoluminescence peak positions of heavily compensated samples are shifted downward with respect to those of moderately compensated samples, and the down shift becomes larger at higher electron density. Based on analysis of photoluminescence spectra, these prominent behaviors are accounted for by band-edge potential fluctuation associated with inhomogeneous residual impurities. reprint
 
489.  Interface-induced Suppression of the Auger Recombination in Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices
H. Mohseni, V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 58 (23)-- December 15, 1998
The temperature dependence of the nonequilibrium carriers lifetime has been deduced from the measurement of the photocurrent response in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Based on the temperature dependence of the responsivity and modeling of the transport parameters we have found that the carrier lifetime weakly depends on temperature in the high-temperature region. This indicates the temperature dependence of the Auger recombination rate with no threshold that differs it from that in the bulk material and can be attributed to the interface-induced suppression of the Auger recombination in thin quantum wells. reprint
 
490.  Current Status and Future Trends of Infrared Detectors
M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 1998
 
491.  Recent development in Sb-based MWIR interband laser diodes
D. Wu and M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 1998
 
492.  Relaxation kinetics in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
S. Slivken, V.I. Litvinov, M. Razeghi, and J.R. Meyer
-- December 1, 1998
 
493.  Investigation of InAsSb Infrared Photodetectors for Near Room Temperature Operation
J.D. Kim and M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 1998
 
494.  Low Threshold Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by GSMBE
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Matlis, A. Rybaltowski, C. Jelen, and J. Diaz
-- December 1, 1998
 
495.  Development of High-performance III-Nitride-based Semiconductor Devices
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, and P. Sandvik
-- November 6, 1998
 
496.  Growth and Characterization of InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice for 8–12 μm Room Temperature Detectors
H. Mohseni and M. Razeghi
-- November 5, 1998
 
497.  Growth and Characterization of Self-Assembled InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dots for Mid-Infrared Photoconductive Detector by LP-MOCVD
S. Kim and M. Razeghi
-- November 5, 1998
 
498.  High quality LEO growth and characterization of GaN films on Al2O3 and Si substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, and J. Diaz
SPIE International Conference on Solid State Crystals, Zakopane, Poland; Proceedings 3725-- October 12, 1998
We report the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN films on (00.1) Al2O3 and (111) Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The LEO on Si substrates was possible after achieving quasi monocrystalline GaN template films on (111) Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess the quality of the LEO films. Lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates were achieved for both LEO growths of GaN on sapphire and silicon substrates. reprint
 
499.  Uncooled long-wavelength infrared photodetectors using narrow bandgap semiconductors
M. Razeghi, J. Wojkowski, J.D. Kim, H. Mohseni and J.J. Lee
-- October 12, 1998
 
500.  InGaAlAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors for 8-20 μm Wavelengths
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, V. Guzman, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown
-- October 1, 1998
 

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