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551.  Growth and Optimization of GaInAsP/InP Material System for Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Applications
M. Erdtmann, J. Jiang, A. Matlis, A. Tahraoui, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Multi-quantum well structures of GaxIn1-xAsyP1-y were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for the fabrication of quantum well IR photodetectors. The thickness and composition of the wells was determined by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence experiments. The intersubband absorption spectrum of the Ga0.47In0.53As/InP, Ga0.38In0.62As0.80P0.20 (1.55 μm)/InP, and Ga0.27In0.73As0.57P0.43 (1.3 μm))/InP quantum wells are found to have cutoff wavelengths of 9.3 μm, 10.7 micrometers , and 14.2 μm respectively. These wavelengths are consistent with a conduction band offset to bandgap ratio of approximately 0.32. Facet coupled illumination responsivity and detectivity are reported for each composition. reprint
552.  Solar-Blind AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodetectors grown on LEO and non-LEO GaN
P. Sandvik, D. Walker, P. Kung, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, V. Kumar, X. Zhang, J. Diaz, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 3948, pp. 265 -- January 26, 2000
The III-Nitride material system is an excellent candidate for UV photodetector applications due to its wide, direct bandgaps and robust material nature. However, despite many inherent material advantages, the III-Nitride material system typically suffers from a large number of extended defects which degrade material quality and device performance. One technique aimed at reducing defect densities in these materials is lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO). In this work, we present a preliminary comparison between AlGaN UV, solar-blind p-i-n photodiodes fabricated form LEO GaN and non-LEO GaN. Improvements in both responsivity and rejection ratio are observed, however, further device improvements are necessary. For these, we focus on the optimization of the p- i-n structure and a reduction in contact resistivity to p- GaN and p-AlGaN layers. By improving the structure of the device, GaN p-i-n photodiodes were fabricated and demonstrate 86 percent internal quantum efficiency at 362 nm and a peak to visible rejection ratio of 105. Contact treatments have reduced the contact resistivity to p-GaN and p-AlGaN by over one order of magnitude form our previous results. reprint
553.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. reprint
554.  Ultraviolet Detector Materials and Devices Studied by Femtosecond Nonlinear Optical Techniques
M. Wraback, H. Shen, P. Kung, M. Razeghi, J.C. Carrano, T. Li, and J.C. Campbell
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000
Femtosecond nonlinear optical techniques have been employed in the study of carrier dynamics and transport in UV detector materials. Visible femtosecond pulses derived from the signal beam of a 250 kHz regenerative amplifier-pumped optical parametric amplifier were frequency doubled to obtain pulses tunable from 250 nm to 375 nm. Time-resolved reflectivity experiments indicate that the room-temperature carrier lifetime in GaN grown by double lateral epitaxial overgrowth is about 3 times longer than that of GaN grown on sapphire without benefit of this technique. The electron velocity-field characteristics and saturation velocity in GaN have been obtained form time-resolved studies of electroabsorption in a GaN p-i-n diode. The peak steady- state velocity of 1.9x107 cm/s in this device occurs at 225 kV/cm. Time-resolved transmission measurements have been used to monitor ultrafast carrier relaxation phenomena in a thin AlGaN layer with bandgap in the solar blind region of the spectrum. Excitation intensity and wavelength dependent studies of the photoinduced bleaching decays suggest that they are primarily governed by trapping in a high density of sub-bandgap defect levels. reprint
555.  Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength
D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X.H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (4)-- January 24, 2000
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1–xN photodiodes (x~0.70) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The peak responsivity for –5 V bias is 0.11 A/W at 232 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90%. The device response drops four orders of magnitude by 275 nm and remains at low response for the entire near-ultraviolet and visible spectrum. Improvements were made to the device design including a semitransparent Ni/Au contact layer and a GaN:Mg cap layer, which dramatically increased device response by enhancing the carrier collection efficiency. reprint
556.  Tl incorporation in InSb and lattice contraction of In1-xTlxSb
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (3)-- January 17, 2000
Ternary In1−xTlxSb thin films are grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in the high In composition region. Infrared photoresponse spectra of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers show a clear shift toward a longer wavelength compared to that of InSb. Tl incorporation is confirmed by Auger electron spectroscopy. In contrast to the theoretical expectation, high resolution x-ray diffraction study reveals that the lattice of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers is contracted by the incorporation of Tl. As more Tl is incorporated, the lattice contraction is observed to increase gradually in the experimental range. A possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed. Our experimental results suggest that the Tl incorporation behavior in In1−xTlxSb differs from that of other group III impurities in III antimonides. reprint
557.  Advanced Semiconductor Lasers in the 3—10 μm Wavelength Range
M. Razeghi
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems 10 (1-- January 1, 2000
558.  Future Trends of III-Nitrides Using Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, X. Zhang, K. Mi, D. Walker, V. Kumar, and J. Diaz
10th International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices (IWPSD-99), New Delhi, India; Proceedings-- December 14, 1999
559.  Pulse Autocorrelation Measurements Based on Two- and Three-Photon Conductivity in a GaN Photodiode
A. Streltsov, K.D. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 75 (24)-- December 13, 1999
We characterize the performance of a GaN p-i-n photodiode as a nonlinear sensor for second- and third-order femtosecond pulse autocorrelation measurements in the visible and near-infrared regimes, respectively. The two- and three-photon absorption coefficients for GaN are also determined. reprint
560.  Kinetics of Quantum States in Quantum Cascade Lasers: Device Design Principles and fabrication
M. Razeghi
special issue of Microelectronics Journal 30 (10)-- October 1, 1999
561.  Uncooled InAs/GaSb Type-II infrared detectors grown on GaAs substrate for the 8–12 μm atmospheric window
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. Brown, and W. Mitchel
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 35 (7)-- July 1, 1999
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2×108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays reprint
562.  Exploration of Novel InSbBi Alloy for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
special issue of the Journal of the Korean Physical Society 35-- July 1, 1999
563.  Growth and characterization of InGaAs/InGaP quantum dots for mid-infrared photodetectors
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, and M. Razeghi
special issue of the Journal of the Korean Physical Society 35-- July 1, 1999
564.  Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of High Power Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (808 nm) Laser Diodes
H.J. Yi and M. Razeghi
special issue of the Journal of the Korean Physical Society 35-- July 1, 1999
565.  InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice injection lasers operating at 4.0 μm grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
B. Lane, Z. Wu, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (23)-- June 7, 1999
We report high power mid-infrared electrical injection operation of laser diodes based on InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices grown on InAs substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The broad-area laser diodes with 100 μm aperture and 1800 μm cavity length demonstrate peak output powers of 546 and 94 mW in pulsed and cw operation respectively at 100 K with a threshold current density as low as 100 A/cm². reprint
566.  Development of High-performance III-Nitride-based Semiconductor Devices
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, and P. Sandvik
special issue of the Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 34-- June 1, 1999
567.  Low-Threshold 7.3 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken, A. Matlis, A. Rybaltowski, Z. Wu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (19)-- May 19, 1999
We report low-threshold 7.3 μm superlattice-based quantum cascade lasers. The threshold current density is 3.4 kA/cm² at 300 K and 1.25 kA/cm² at 79 K in pulsed mode for narrow (∼20 μm), 2 mm-long laser diodes. The characteristic temperature (T0) is 210 K. The slope efficiencies are 153 and 650 mW/A at 300 and 100 K, respectively. Power output is in excess of 100 mW at 300 K. Laser far-field intensity measurements give divergence angles of 64° and 29° in the growth direction and in the plane of the quantum wells, respectively. Far-field simulations show excellent agreement with the measured results. reprint
568.  Exciton localization in group-III nitride quantum wells
V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 59 (15)-- May 15, 1999
Exciton density of states broadened by compositional disorder in the group-III nitride quantum well is calculated. The excitonic photoluminescence linewidth is estimated and related to the material parameters of the alloy for two limiting cases of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional excitons in the quantum well. It is shown that the effect of the compositional fluctuations depends on dimensionality of the exciton: the 2D excitons are more sensitive to the inhomogeneities than 3D ones. The broad near-band-gap energy states distribution for quasi-two-dimensional excitons is consistent with the experimental evidence of the spontaneous and stimulated emissions from excitonic states localized on compositional fluctuations. reprint
569.  Aluminum gallium nitride short-period superlattices doped with magnesium
A. Saxler, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (14)-- April 9, 1999
Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short-period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. reprint
570.  High power asymmetrical InAsSb/InAsSbP/AlAsSb double heterostructure lasers emitting at 3.4 μm
D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Mohseni, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (9)-- March 1, 1999
Midinfrared lasers with an asymmetrical InPAsSb/InAsSb/AlAsSb double heterostructure are reported. Using the asymmetrical double heterostructure, p- and n-cladding layers are separately optimized; high energy-gap AlAsSb (Eg ≈ 1.5 eV) for the p-type cladding layer to reduce the leakage current, and thus to increase To, and low energy-gap InPAsSb (Eg ≈ 0.5 eV) for the n-cladding layer to have low turn-on voltage. 100-μm-width broad-area lasers with 1000 μm cavity length exhibited peak output powers of 1.88 W in pulse and 350 mW in continuous wave modes per two facets at T=80 K with To of 54 K and turn-on voltage of 0.36 V. Maximum peak output powers up to 6.7 W were obtained from a laser bar of total aperture of 400 μm width and cavity length of 1000 μm, with a differential efficiency of 34% and far-field beam divergence narrower than 40° at 80 K. reprint
571.  Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides
D.N. Hahn, G.T. Kiehne, G.K.L. Wong, J.B. Ketterson, P. Kung, A. Saxler and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (5)-- March 1, 1999
Phase-matched optical second-harmonic (SH) generation was observed in GaN and AlN slab waveguides. Phase matching was achieved by waveguide modal dispersion. By tuning the output wavelength of an optical parametric amplifier, several phased-matched SH peaks were observed in the visible spectrum covering blue to red wavelengths. The peak positions are in agreement with the values calculated using the dispersive refractive indices of the film and substrate materials. reprint
572.  AlGaInAs/InP-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen and M. Razeghi
Opto-Electronics Review 7 (1)-- March 1, 1999
573.  Novel InTlSb Alloy for Uncooled Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Opto-Electronics Review 7 (1)-- March 1, 1999
574.  Recent Advance in Semiconductor Mid-Infrared Lasers Emitting at 3–12 μm
M. Razeghi
Opto-Electronics Review 7 (1)-- March 1, 1999
575.  High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes
E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (8)-- February 22, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1−xN p-i-n photodiodes (0 < x < 0.15) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible rejection of six orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 365 to 338 nm. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances, the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. This behavior is justified by the strong frequency dependence of the device capacitance. By an admittance analysis, we conclude that speed is not limited by deep levels, but by substitutional Mg capture and emission time. reprint

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