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651.  Morphology of Twinned GaN Grown on (11.0) Sapphire Substrates
T. Kato, P. Kung, A. Saxler, C.J. Sun, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi and T. Okuda
-- January 1, 1997
652.  Simultaneous growth of two different oriented GaN epilayers on (11.0) sapphire (I) morphology and orientation
T. Kato, H. Ohsato, T. Okuda, P. Kung, A. Saxler, C.J. Sun, and M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 1997
653.  MOCVD Growth of High Quality GaN-AlGaN Based Structures on Al2O3 Substrates with Dislocation Density less than 107cm-2
P. Kung, X. Zhang, A. Saxler, D. Walker, M. Razeghi, W. Qian, and V.P. Dravid
-- January 1, 1997
654.  Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Modulation-doped Field-effect Transistor Structures
C. Besikci, Y. Civan, S. Ozder, O. Sen, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Semiconductor Science Technology 12-- January 1, 1997
Lattice-matched Ga0.51In0.49P/GaAs and strained Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy by using Si as dopant. Detailed electrical characterization results are presented. The Ga0.5In0.49P/In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs sample yielded dark two-dimensional electron gas densities of 3.75 x 1012 cm-2 (300 K) and 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 (77 K) which are comparable to the highest sheet electron densities reported in AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/InGaAs/InP modulation-doped heterostructures. Persistent photoconductivity was observed in the strained samples only. A 0.797 eV deep level has been detected in the undoped GaInP layers of the structures. Another level, with DLTS peak height dependent on the filling pulse width, has been detected at the interface of the strained samples. Based on the DLTS and Hall effect measurement results, this level, which seems to be the origin of persistent photoconductivity, can be attributed to the strain relaxation related defects. reprint
655.  High Power InAsSb/InAsSbP Laser Diodes Emitting at 3-5 μm Range
M. Razeghi, J. Diaz, H.J. Yi, D. Wu, B. Lane, A. Rybaltowski, Y. Xiao, and H. Jeon
-- December 2, 1996
656.  GaAs/GaInP Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors for Focal Plane Array Infrared Imaging
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
-- December 2, 1996
657.  InSb Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays on GaAs, Si, and Al2O3 Substrates
E. Michel, H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, J. Sandven, J. Xu, M. Razeghi, P. Vu, R. Bredthauer, W. Mitchel, and M. Ahoujja
-- December 2, 1996
658.  High Resolution X-ray Diffraction of GaN Grown on Sapphire Substrates
A. Saxler, M.A. Capano, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung, X. Zhang, D. Walker and M. Razeghi
-- December 2, 1996
659.  AlGaN Based Materials and Heterostructures
P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, X. Zhang, R. Lavado, K.S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- December 2, 1996
660.  Observation of Room Temperature Surface-Emitting Stimulated Emission from GaN:Ge by Optical pumping
X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 80 (11)-- December 1, 1996
Optically pumped surface-emitting stimulated emission at room temperature was observed from GaN:Ge grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The sample was optically pumped perpendicularly on the top surface while the stimulated emission was collected from the back colinearly with the pump beam. The cavity was formed by the GaN/air and GaN/sapphire interfaces without any other structure. The stimulated emission was gain guided by the pump beam. The threshold optical pump density for stimulated emission was approximately 2.8 MW/cm² and the linewidth was 2.5 nm. The emission from GaN:Ge showed a redshift as the pump density increased. The comparison between theoretical calculations and experimental results suggested that many-body interactions can account well for the redshift. reprint
661.  Optical losses of Al-free lasers for λ = 0.808 and 0.98 μm
H. Yi, J. Diaz, B. Lane, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (20)-- November 11, 1996
In this work, we study the origin of the optical losses in Al‐free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=0.808 μm) and InGaAs/GaAs/InGaP (λ=0.980 μm) lasers. Theoretical modeling and the experimental results indicate that the scattering of the laser beam by refractive index fluctuation in the alloys is the dominant loss in our lasers, and the loss due to the free‐carrier absorption and scattering by interface roughness are negligible. reprint
662.  Effect of the spin split-off band on optical absorption in p-type Ga1 xInxAsyP1-y quantum-well infrared detectors
J.R. Hoff, M. Razeghi and G. Brown
Physical Review B 54 (15)-- October 15, 1996
Experimental investigations of p-type Ga1-xInxAsyP1-y quantum-well intersubband photodetectors (QWIP’s) led to the discovery of unique features in photoresponse spectra of these devices. In particular, the strong 2–5 μm photoresponse of these QWIP’s was not anticipated based on previous experimental and theoretical results for p-type GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs QWIP’s. Our theoretical modeling of p-type QWIP’s based on the Ga1-xInxAsyP1-y system revealed that the intense short-wavelength photoresponse was due to a much stronger coupling to the spin-orbit split-off components in the continuum than occurs for GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs QWIP’s. Due to the strong influence of the spin split-off band, an eight-band Kane Hamiltonian was required to accurately model the measured photoresponse spectra. This theoretical model is first applied to a standard p-type GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As QWIP, and then to a series of GaAs/Ga0.51In0.49P, GaAs/Ga0.62In0.38As0.22P0.78, Ga0.79In0.21As0.59P0.41/Ga0.51In0.49P, and Ga0.79In0.21As0.59P0.41/Ga0.62In0.38As0.22P0.78 QWIP’s. Through this analysis, the insignificance of spin split-off absorption in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs QWIP’s is verified, as is the dual role of light-hole extended-state and spin split-off hole-extended-state absorption on the spectral shape of Ga1-xInxAsyP1-y QWIP’s. reprint
663.  Recent advances in III-Nitride materials, characterization and device applications
M. Razeghi, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, K.Y. Lim, and K.S. Kim
SPIE Conference: Solid State Crystals in Optoelectronics and Semiconductor Technology; Proceedings 3179-- October 7, 1996
High-quality AlN, GaN, AlGaN have been grown on sapphire substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The x-ray rocking curve of AlN and GaN were 100 arcsecs and 30 arcsecs respectively with Pendelloesung oscillations, which are the best reported to date. GaN with high crystallinity simultaneously exhibited high optical and electrical quality. Photoluminescence linewidth of GaN at 77K was as low as 17 meV, which is the best reported to date. Si-doped GaN had a mobility higher than 300 cm²/V·s. GaN has been also successfully grown on LiGaO2 substrate with LP-MOCVD for the first time. AlGaN for the entire composition range has been grown. These layers exhibited the lowest x-ray FWHM reported to date. The excellent optical quality of these layers have been characterized by room temperature UV transmission and photoluminescence. N-type doping of AlGaN with Si has ben achieved up to 60 percent Al with mobility as high as 78 cm²/V·s. AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN superlattice with atomically sharp interface have been demonstrated. Optically-pumped stimulated emission in GaN:Ge and GaN:Si has been observed with threshold optical power density as low as 0.4 MW/cm². AlGaN photoconductors with cut-off wavelengths from 200 nm to 365 nm have been achieved for the first time. GaN p-n junction photovoltaic detector with very selective photoresponse have been demonstrated and theoretically modeled. Ti/AlN/Si metal-insulator- semiconductor capacitor with high capacitance-voltage performances at both low and high frequencies and low interface trap level density have been demonstrated for the first time in this material system. reprint
664.  Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of monocrystalline GaN thin films on β-LiGaO2substrates
P. Kung, A. Saxler, X. Zhang, D. Walker, R. Lavado, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (14)-- September 30, 1996
We report the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth and characterization of monocrystalline GaN thin films on β-LiGaO2 substrates. The influence of the growth temperature on the crystal quality was studied. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Hall measurements, optical transmission, photoluminescence. reprint
665.  III-V interband and intraband far-infrared detectors
M. Razeghi, C. Jelen, S. Slivken and J. Hoff
-- September 23, 1996
666.  Photoluminescence study of InAsSb/InAsSbP heterostructures grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, D. Wu, E. Kaas, H. Yi, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (11)-- September 9, 1996
Photoluminescence has been measured for double‐ and separate‐confinement InAsSb/InAsSbP heterostructures grown by low‐pressure metalorganic vapor deposition. A measurement of the integrated luminescence intensity at the temperature range of 77–300 K shows that over a wide range of excitation level (1–5×10² W/cm²) the radiative transitions are the dominant. mechanism below T∼170 K. Auger recombination coefficient C=C0 exp(−Ea/kT) with C0≊5×10−27 cm6/s and Ea≊40 meV has been estimated. reprint
667.  Room Temperature Operation of InTlSb Infrared Photodetectors on GaAs
J.D. Kim, E. Michel, S. Park, J. Xu, S. Javadpour and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (3)-- August 15, 1996
Long-wavelength InTlSb photodetectors operating at room temperature are reported. The photo- detectors were grown on (100) semi-insulating GaAs substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse of InTlSb photodetectors is observed up to 11 µm at room temperature. The maximum responsivity of an In0.96Tl0.04Sb photodetector is about 6.64 V/W at 77 K, corresponding to a detectivity of about 7.64 × 108 cm·Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime in InTlSb photodetectors derived from the stationary photoconductivity is 10–50 ns at 77 K. reprint
668.  Observation of inversion layers at AlN-Si interfaces fabricated by metal organic chemical vapour deposition
X. Zhang, D. Walker, A. Saxler, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
-- August 15, 1996
669.  Demonstration of an Electronic Grade Ti/AlN/Si Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Capacitor
X. Zhang, D. Walker, A. Saxler, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
-- August 1, 1996
670.  The Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of InSb on (111) GaAs
E. Michel, J. Kim, J. Xu, S. Javadpour, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (2)-- July 8, 1996
The molecular beam epitaxial growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs has been investigated. It was found that for a given Sb/In ratio, a higher growth temperature was required for the growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs compared to that on (001) GaAs. This difference has been attributed to the bonding characteristics of the (111)B and (001) surface. Once growth had been optimized, it was found that the material characteristics of (111)B InSb were almost identical to that of (001) InSb, i.e., independent of orientation. For example, the x-ray full width at half-maximum and 300 K mobility had the same absolute values for (111) InSb and (001)InSb and followed the same dependence with the sample thickness. Te was found to be a well-behaved n-type dopant for (111)B InSb. reprint
671.  Comparison of Gain and Threshold Current Density for InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) Lasers with Different Quantum-Well Thickness
H.J. Yi, J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, G. Lukas, S. Kim, D. Wu, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 79 (11)-- July 1, 1996
We investigated the quantum‐size effects of quantum well (QW) on gain and threshold current density for InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) laser diodes. In this work, a comparison is made of lasers with different QW thickness while keeping the optical confinement factors constant. We found that the threshold current density and differential efficiency were not affected by narrowing the QW thickness. The theoretical model taking into account the mixing of the valence bands and momentum relaxation for InGaAsP/GaAs lasers with spontaneous emission (optically pumped) measurement shows that the absence of difference between these structures can be attributed to the high relaxation rate. reprint
672.  Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski
Journal of Applied Physics Applied Physics Review 79 (10)-- May 15, 1996
In this review article a comprehensive analysis of the developments in ultraviolet (UV) detector technology is described. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further considerations are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the basic theory of photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors is presented in a uniform way convenient for various detector materials. Next, the current state of the art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main efforts are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide band-gap semiconductors the most promising of which are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is finally described in detail. reprint
673.  InSb Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrates Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
E. Michel, J. Xu, J.D. Kim, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 8 (5) pp. 673-- May 1, 1996
The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-in Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsitivity at 4 μm is about 1.0×103 V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8×1010 cm·Hz½/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA's in the future. reprint
674.  AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire
D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, S. Javadpour, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 68 (15)-- April 8, 1996
AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤0.50) ultraviolet photoconductors with a minimum cutoff wavelength shorter than 260 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The AlGaN active layers were grown on (00⋅1) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The spectral responsivity of the GaN detector at 360 nm is about 1 A/W biased at 8 V at room temperature. The carrier lifetime derived from the voltage‐dependent responsivity is 0.13–0.36 ms. reprint
675.  Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon
K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics79 (5)-- March 1, 1996
The details of epitaxial growth and microstrictural characteristics of AlN films grown on sapphire (0001), (1012) and Si (100), (111) substrates were investigated using plan‐view and cross‐sectional high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy and x‐ray diffraction techniques. The films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMA1+NH3+N2 gas mixtures. Different degrees of epitaxy were observed for the films grown on α‐Al2O3 and Si substrates in different orientations. The epitaxial relationship for (0001) sapphire was found to be (0001)AlN∥(0001)sap with in‐plane orientation relationship of [0110]AlN∥[1210]sap. This is equivalent to a 30° rotation in the basal (0001) plane. For (1012) sapphire substrates, the epitaxial relationship was determined to be (1120)AlN∥(1012)sap with the in‐plane alignment of [0001]AlN∥[1011]sap. The AlN films on (0001) α‐Al2O3 were found to contain inverted domain boundaries and a/3〈1120〉 threading dislocations with the estimated density of 1010 cm−2. The density of planar defects (stacking faults) found in AlN films was considerably higher in the case of (1012) compared to (0001) substrates. Films on Si substrates were found to be highly textured c axis oriented when grown on (111) Si, and c axis textured with random in‐plane orientation on (100) Si. The role of thin‐film defects and interfaces on device fabrication is discussed. reprint

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