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1.  
Demonstration of Zn-diffused planar long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on type-II superlattice grown by MBE
Demonstration of Zn-diffused planar long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on type-II superlattice grown by MBE
Rajendra K. Saroj, Van Hoang Nguyen, Steven Slivken, Gail J. Brown and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
We report on a planar long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-Ⅱ superlattice with zinc diffusion. The superlattice structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, followed by a post-growth Zinc diffusion process in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition reactor. The planar photodetectors showed a peak responsivity of 2.18 A/W, under an applied bias of -20 mV, with a corresponding quantum efficiency of 44.5%, without any anti-reflection coating, and had a 100% cut-off wavelength of 8.5 µm at 77 K temperature. These photodetectors exhibit a specific peak detectivity of 3.0×1012 cm.Hz1/2/W, with a dark current density of 1.5×10-5 A/cm2 and the differential-resistance-area product of ~8.6×10-1 Ω.cm2, under an applied bias of -20 mV at 77 K. A comparative study between the planar and conventional mesa-isolated photodetectors was also carried out. reprint
 
2.  
High Power Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown on GaAs
High Power Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown on GaAs
Steven Slivken and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 2022, 9(4), 231 (COVER ARTICLE)
The motivation behind this work is to show that InP-based intersubband lasers with high power can be realized on substrates with significant lattice mismatch. This is a primary concern for the integration of mid-infrared active optoelectronic devices on low-cost photonic platforms, such as Si. As evidence, an InP-based mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure was grown on a GaAs substrate, which has a large (4%) lattice mismatch with respect to InP. Prior to laser core growth, a metamorphic buffer layer of InP was grown directly on a GaAs substrate to adjust the lattice constant. Wafer characterization data are given to establish general material characteristics. A simple fabrication procedure leads to lasers with high peak power (>14 W) at room temperature. These results are extremely promising for direct quantum cascade laser growth on Si substrates. reprint
 
3.  
High-brightness LWIR quantum cascade lasers
High-brightness LWIR quantum cascade lasers
F. Wang, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, vol. 46, No. 20, 5193
Long-wave infrared (LWIR, lambda~8-12 um) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are drawing increasing interest, as they provide the possibility of long-distance transmission of light through the atmosphere owing to the reduced water absorption. However, their development has been lagging behind the shorter wavelength QCLs due to much bigger technological challenges. In this Letter, through band structure engineering based on a highly localized diagonal laser transition strategy and out-coupler design using an electrically isolated taper structure, we demonstrate high beam quality single-mode LWIR QCLs with high-brightness (2.0 MW cm-2 sr-1 for lambda~10 um, 2.2 MW cm-2 sr-1 for lambda~9 um, 5.0 MW cm-2 sr-1 for lambda~8 um) light extraction from a single facet in continuous-wave operation at 15 oC. These results mark an important milestone in exploring the lighting capability of inter-sub-band semiconductor lasers in the LWIR spectral range. reprint
 
4.  
Harmonic injection locking of high-power mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
Harmonic injection locking of high-power mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
Feihu Wang, Steven Slivken, and Manijeh Razeghi
OSA Photonics Research •https://doi.org/10.1364/PRJ.423573
High-power, high-speed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with stable emission in the mid-infrared regime are of great importance for applications in metrology, telecommunication, and fundamental tests of physics. Owing to the inter-sub-band transition, the unique ultrafast gain recovery time of the QCL with picosecond dynamics is expected to overcome the modulation limit of classical semiconductor lasers and bring a revolution for the next generation of ultrahigh-speed optical communication. Therefore, harmonic injection locking, offering the possibility to fast modulate and greatly stabilize the laser emission beyond the rate limited by cavity length, is inherently adapted to QCLs. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the harmonic injection locking of a mid-infrared QCL with an output power over 1 watt in continuous-wave operation at 288 K. Compared with an unlocked laser, the inter-mode spacing fluctuation of an injection locked QCL can be considerably reduced by a factor above 1×10 E3, which permits the realization of an ultra-stable mid-infrared semiconductor laser with high phase coherence and frequency purity. Despite temperature change, this fluctuation can be still stabilized to hertz level by a microwave modulation up to ∼18 GHz. These results open up the prospect of the applications of mid-infrared QCL technology for frequency comb engineering, metrology and the next generation ultrahigh-speed telecommunication. It may also stimulate new schemes for exploring ultrafast mid-infrared pulse generation in QCLs. reprint
 
5.  
Room temperature quantum cascade laser with ∼ 31% wall-plug efficiency
Room temperature quantum cascade laser with ∼ 31% wall-plug efficiency
F. Wang, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, and M. Razeghi
AIP Advances 10, 075012-- July 14, 2020
In this article, we report the demonstration of a quantum cascade laser emitting at λ ≈ 4.9 μm with a wall-plug efficiency of ∼31% and an output power of ∼23 W in pulsed operation at room temperature with 50 cascade stages (Ns). With proper fabrication and packaging, this buried ridge quantum cascade laser with a cavity length of 5 mm delivers more than ∼15 W output power, and its wall-plug efficiency exceeds ∼20% at 100 °C. The experimental results of the lasers are well in agreement with the numerical predictions. reprint
 
6.  
Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 22% wall plug efficiency in continuous-wave operation
Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 22% wall plug efficiency in continuous-wave operation
F. Wang, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, and M. Razeghi
Optics Express Vol. 28, Issue 12, pp. 17532-17538-- June 8, 2020
We report the demonstration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with improved efficiency emitting at a wavelength of 4.9 µm in pulsed and continuous-wave(CW)operation. Based on an established design and guided by simulation, the number of QCL-emitting stages is increased in order to realize a 29.3% wall plug efficiency (WPE) in pulsed operation at room temperature. With proper fabrication and packaging, a 5-mm-long, 8-µm-wide QCL with a buried ridge waveguide is capable of 22% CW WPE and 5.6 W CW output power at room temperature. This corresponds to an extremely high optical density at the output facet of ∼35 MW/cm², without any damage. reprint
 
7.  
Continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with 5.6 W output power at room temperature and 41% wall-plug efficiency in cryogenic operation
Continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with 5.6 W output power at room temperature and 41% wall-plug efficiency in cryogenic operation
F. Wang, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
AIP Advances 10, 055120-- May 19, 2020
In this paper, we report a post-polishing technique to achieve nearly complete surface planarization for the buried ridge regrowth processing of quantum cascade lasers. The planarized device geometry improves the thermal conduction and reliability and, most importantly, enhances the power and efficiency in continuous wave operation. With this technique, we demonstrate a high continuous wave wall-plug efficiency of an InP-based quantum cascade laser reaching ∼41% with an output power of ∼12 W from a single facet operating at liquid nitrogen temperature. At room temperature, the continuous wave output power exceeds the previous record, reaching ∼5.6 W. reprint
 
8.  
High power continuous wave operation of single mode quantum cascade lasers up to 5 W spanning λ∼3.8-8.3 µm
High power continuous wave operation of single mode quantum cascade lasers up to 5 W spanning λ∼3.8-8.3 µm
Quanyong Lu, Steven Slivken, Donghai Wu, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Express Vol. 28, Issue 10, pp. 15181-15188-- May 4, 2020
In this work, we report high power continuous wave room-temperature operation single mode quantum cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral range from 3.8 to 8.3 µm. Single mode robustness and dynamic range are enhanced by optimizing the distributed feedback grating coupling design and the facet coatings. High power single mode operation is secured by circumventing the over-coupling issue and spatial hole burning effect. Maximum single-facet continuous-wave output power of 5.1 W and wall plug efficiency of 16.6% is achieved at room temperature. Single mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and single-lobed far field with negligible beam steering is observed. The significantly increased power for single mode emission will boost the QCL applications in long-range free-space communication and remote sensing of hazardous chemicals. reprint
 
9.  
Room temperature continuous wave THz frequency comb based on quantum cascade lasers
Room temperature continuous wave THz frequency comb based on quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi; Q. Y. Lu; F. H. Wang; D. H. Wu; S. Slivken
Proc. SPIE 11124, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications X, 1112407-- September 6, 2019
Frequency combs, spectra of phase-coherent equidistant lines, have revolutionized time and frequency metrology. The recently developed quantum cascade laser (QCL) comb has exhibits great potential with high power and broadband spectrum. However, in the terahertz (THz) range, cryogenic cooling has to be applied for THz QCL combs. We report a room temperature THz frequency comb at 3.0 THz based on difference-frequency generation from a mid-IR QCL comb. A largely detuned distributed-feedback grating is integrated into the QCL cavity to provide the single mode operation as well as enhanced spatial hole-burning effect for multimode comb operation. Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with multiple equally spaced lines by beating it with a reference Fabry-Pérot comb confirms the THz comb operation. This type of THz comb provides a new solution to chip-based high-speed high-resolution THz spectroscopy with compact size at room temperature. reprint
 
10.  
Room temperature terahertz semiconductor frequency comb
Room temperature terahertz semiconductor frequency comb
Quanyong Lu, Feihu Wang, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Communications 10, 2403-- June 3, 2019
A terahertz (THz) frequency comb capable of high-resolution measurement will significantly advance THz technology application in spectroscopy, metrology and sensing. The recently developed cryogenic-cooled THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) comb has exhibited great potentials with high power and broadband spectrum. Here, we report a room temperature THz harmonic frequency comb in 2.2 to 3.3 THz based on difference-frequency generation from a mid-IR QCL. The THz comb is intracavity generated via down-converting a mid-IR comb with an integrated mid-IR single mode based on distributed-feedback grating without using external optical elements. The grating Bragg wavelength is largely detuned from the gain peak to suppress the grating dispersion and support the comb operation in the high gain spectral range. Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with multiple equally spaced lines by beating it with a reference Fabry-Pérot comb confirms the THz comb operation. This type of THz comb will find applications to room temperature chip-based THz spectroscopy. reprint
 
11.  
High-power, continuous-wave, phase-locked quantum cascade laser arrays emitting at 8 μm
High-power, continuous-wave, phase-locked quantum cascade laser arrays emitting at 8 μm
WENJIA ZHOU,QUAN-YONG LU,DONG-HAI WU, STEVEN SLIVKEN, AND MANIJEH RAZEGHI
OPTICS EXPRESS 27, 15776-15785-- May 20, 2019
We report a room-temperature eight-element phase-locked quantum cascade laser array emitting at 8 μm with a high continuous-wave power of 8.2 W and wall plug efficiency of 9.5%. The laser array operates primarily via the in-phase supermode and has single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio of ~20 dB. The quantum cascade laser active region is based on a high differential gain (8.7 cm/kA) and low voltage defect (90 meV) design. A record high wall plug efficiency of 20.4% is achieved from a low loss buried ridge type single-element Fabry-Perot laser operating in pulsed mode at 20 °C. reprint
 
12.  
New design strategies for multifunctional and inexpensive quantum cascade lasers
New design strategies for multifunctional and inexpensive quantum cascade lasers
Steven Slivken; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10926, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVI, 1092611-- February 1, 2019
This manuscript describes some of the new advances in active mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits enabled by new quantum cascade laser technologies. This includes monolithic beam steering which was achieved via the integration of a widely tunable QCL and a tapered grating outcoupler. A record 17.9 degrees of steering with a low divergence beam (0.5 degrees) was achieved. In addition, the use of surface emitting architectures is proposed as a means to reduce the manufacturing cost of next-generation QCLs. A reflective outcoupler is demonstrated which can allow for stable surface emission from a quantum cascade laser and has potential for cost-effective wafer-scale manufacturing. This outcoupler is integrated with an amplified, electrically tunable laser architecture to demonstrate high power surface emission at a wavelength near 4.9 μm. Single mode peak power up to 6.7 W is demonstrated with >6 W available over a 90 cm−1 (215 nm) spectral range. All of this is achieved while maintaining a high quality output beam, similar to a standard edge emitter. reprint
 
13.  
Surface Emitting, Tunable, Mid-Infrared Laser with High Output Power and Stable Output Beam
Surface Emitting, Tunable, Mid-Infrared Laser with High Output Power and Stable Output Beam
Steven Slivken, Donghai Wu & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 549-- January 24, 2019
A reflective outcoupler is demonstrated which can allow for stable surface emission from a quantum cascade laser and has potential for cost-effective wafer-scale manufacturing. This outcoupler is integrated with an amplified, electrically tunable laser architecture to demonstrate high power surface emission at a wavelength near 4.9 μm. Single mode peak power up to 6.7 W is demonstrated with >6 W available over a 90 cm−1 (215 nm) spectral range. A high quality output beam is realized with a simple, single-layer, anti-reflective coating. The beam shape and profile are shown to be independent of wavelength. reprint
 
14.  
Single-mode, high-power, midinfrared, quantum cascade laser phased arrays
Single-mode, high-power, midinfrared, quantum cascade laser phased arrays
Wenjia Zhou , Donghai Wu , Quan-Yong Lu, Steven Slivken & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 8:14866-- October 5, 2018
We demonstrate single-mode, 16-channel, optical phased arrays based on quantum cascade laser technology, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. The integrated device consists of a distributed feedback seed section, a highly-efficient tree array multi-mode interferometer power splitter, and a 16-channel amplifier array with a 4° angled facet termination. With a single layer Y2O3 coating, the angled facet reflectivity is estimated to be less than 0.1% for suppressing amplifier self-lasing. A peak output power of 30 W is achieved with an emission spectrum narrower than 11 nm and a side mode suppression ratio over 25 dB. Far field distribution measurement result indicates a uniform phase distribution across the array output. Using the same phased array architecture, we also demonstrate single-mode 3.8 μm QCL amplifier arrays with up to 20 W output power. reprint
 
15.  
Multiple-band, Single-mode, High-power, Phase-locked, Mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays
Multiple-band, Single-mode, High-power, Phase-locked, Mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays
Manijeh Razeghi, Wenjia Zhou, Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, and Steven Slivken
Imaging and Applied Optics 2018, JTh1A.2-- September 15, 2018
Single-mode, 16-channel, phase-locked laser arrays based on quantum cascade laser technology are demonstrated at multiple spectral bands across the mid-infrared spectrum region. High peak output power of 50W is achieved around the long-wavelength band of 7.7µm, while a side mode suppression ratio over 25dB is obtained. Far field distribution measurement result indicates a uniform phase distribution across the array output. reprint
 
16.  
Review of high power frequency comb sources based on InP From MIR to THZ at CQD
Review of high power frequency comb sources based on InP From MIR to THZ at CQD
Manijeh Razeghi, Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken
Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2018, San Diego, California, United States-- September 14, 2018
We present the recent development of high performance compact frequency comb sources based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Significant performance improvements of our frequency combs with respect to the continuous wave power output, spectral bandwidth, and beatnote linewidth are achieved by systematic optimization of the device's active region, group velocity dispersion, and waveguide design. To date, we have demonstrated the most efficient, high power frequency comb operation from a free-running room temperature continuous wave (RT CW) dispersion engineered QCL at λ~5-9 μm. In terms of bandwidth, the comb covered a broad spectral range of 120 cm−1 with a radio-frequency intermode beatnote spectral linewidth of 40 Hz and a total power output of 880 mW at 8 μm and 1 W at ~5.0 μm. The developing characteristics show the potential for fast detection of various gas molecules. Furthermore, THz comb sources based on difference frequency generation in a mid-IR QCL combs could be potentially developed. reprint
 
17.  
Monolithic, steerable, mid-infrared laser realized with no moving parts
Monolithic, steerable, mid-infrared laser realized with no moving parts
Slivken S, Wu D, Razeghi M
Scientific Reports 7, 8472 -- May 24, 2018
The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function. reprint
 
18.  
Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser array
Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser array
W. Zhou, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 181106-- May 4, 2018
We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array. reprint
 
19.  
Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy
Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy
Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, D. H. Wu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 141104-- April 3, 2018
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are versatile light sources with tailorable emitting wavelengths covering the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral ranges. When the dispersion is minimized, frequency combs can be directly emitted from quantum cascade lasers via four-wave mixing. To date, most of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser combs are operational in a narrow wavelength range wherein the QCL dispersion is minimal. In this work, we address the issue of very high dispersion for shortwave QCLs and demonstrate 1-W dispersion compensated shortwave QCL frequency combs at λ~5.0 μm, spanning a spectral range of 100 cm−1. The multi-heterodyne spectrum exhibits 95 equally spaced frequency comb lines, indicating that the shortwave QCL combs are ideal candidates for high-speed high-resolution spectroscopy reprint
 
20.  
Broadband monolithically-tunable quantum cascade lasers
Broadband monolithically-tunable quantum cascade lasers
Wenjia Zhou, Ryan McClintock, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken, Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV, 105400A-- January 26, 2018
Mid-infrared lasers, emitting in the spectral region of 3-12 μm that contain strong characteristic vibrational transitions of many important molecules, are highly desirable for spectroscopy sensing applications. High efficiency quantum cascade lasers have been demonstrated with up to watt-level output power in the mid-infrared region. However, the wide wavelength tuning, which is critical for spectroscopy applications, is still largely relying on incorporating external gratings, which have stability issues. Here, we demonstrate the development a monolithic, widely tunable quantum cascade laser source emitting between 6.1 and 9.2 μm through an on-chip integration of a sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser array with a beam combiner. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and coordinate the driving of the laser array to produce desired wavelength. A broadband spectral measurement (520cm-1) of methane shows excellent agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurement. Further optimizations have led to high performance monolithic tunable QCLs with up to 65 mW output while delivering fundamental mode outputs. reprint
 
21.  
Progress in monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Progress in monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi Wenjia Zhou Ryan McClintock Donghai Wu Steven Slivken
Optical Engineering 57(1), 011018-- December 1, 2017
We present recent progress on the development of monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers. First, we show a broadband midinfrared laser gain realized by a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser based on a strain balanced composite well design of Al0.63In0.37As∕Ga0.35In0.65As∕ Ga0.47In0.53As. Single mode emission between 5.9 and 10.9 μm under pulsed mode operation was realized from a distributed feedback laser array, which exhibited a flat current threshold across the spectral range. Using the broadband wafer, a monolithic tuning between 6.2 and 9.1 μm was demonstrated from a beam combined sampled grating distributed feedback laser array. The tunable laser was utilized for a fast sensing of methane under pulsed operation. Transmission spectra were obtained without any moving parts, which showed excellent agreement to a standard measurement made by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. reprint
 
22.  
High performance monolithic, broadly tunable  mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
High performance monolithic, broadly tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
WENJIA Zhou, DONGHAI Wu, RYAN McCLINTOCK, STEVEN SLIVKEN, AND MANIJEH RAZEGH1
Optica 4(10), p. 1228-- October 10, 2017
Mid-infrared lasers, emitting in the spectral region of 3-12 µm that contains strong characteristic vibrational tran­sitions of many important molecules, are highly desirable for spectroscopy sensing applications. High-efficiency quantum cascade lasers have been demonstrated with up to watt-level output power in the mid-infrared region. However, the wide wavelength tuning that is critical for spectroscopy applica­tions still largely relies on incorporating external gratings, which have stability issues. Here, we demonstrate a mono­lithic, broadly tunable quantum cascade laser source emitting between 6.1 and 9.2 µm through an on-chip integration of a sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser array and a beam combiner. High peak power up to 65 mW has been obtained through a balanced high-gain active region design, efficient waveguide layout, and the development of a broad­band antireflection coating. Nearly fundamental transverse­mode operation is achieved for all emission wavelengths with a pointing stability better than 1.6 mrad (0.1 °). The demon­strated laser source opens new opportunities for mid-infrared spectroscopy. reprint
 
23.  
Recent progress of quantum cascade laser research from 3 to 12 μm at the Center for Quantum Devices
Recent progress of quantum cascade laser research from 3 to 12 μm at the Center for Quantum Devices
MANIJEH RAZEGHI,* WENJIA ZHOU,STEVEN SLIVKEN,QUAN-YONG LU,DONGHAI WU, AND RYAN MCCLINTOC
Applied Optics Vol. 56, No. 31 -- October 10, 2017
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is becoming the leading laser source in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, which contains two atmospheric transmission windows and many molecular fingerprint absorption features. Since its first demonstration in 1994, the QCL has undergone tremendous development in terms of the output power, wall plug efficiency, wavelength coverage, tunability and beam quality. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have demonstrated high-power continuous wave operation of QCLs covering a wide wavelength range from 3 to 12 μm, with power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature. Recent research has resulted in power scaling in pulsed mode with up to 203 W output, electrically tunable QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral gain, broadly tunable on-chip beam-combined QCLs, QCL-based mid-IR frequency combs, and fundamental mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers. The developed QCLs will be the basis for a number of next-generation spectroscopy and sensing systems. reprint
 
24.  
Broadband, Tunable, and Monolithic Quantum Cascade Lasers
Broadband, Tunable, and Monolithic Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken.
Semiconductor lasers; (140.3600) Lasers, tunable-- May 19, 2017
This article describes the state of research and recent developments related to broadband quantum cascade lasers. Monolithic tuning and system development is also discussed. reprint
 
25.  
Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output
Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output
Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, and M. Razeghi
AIP Advances 7, 045313 -- April 26, 2017
Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise. reprint
 

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