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1.  
Microstrip Array Ring FETs with 2D p-Ga2O3 Channels Grown by MOCVD
Microstrip Array Ring FETs with 2D p-Ga2O3 Channels Grown by MOCVD
Manijeh Razeghi, Junhee Lee, Lakshay Gautam, Jean-Pierre Leburton, Ferechteh H. Teherani, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Vinayak P. Dravid and Dimitris Pavlidis
Photonics 2021, 8(12), 578;
Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films of various thicknesses were grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylgallium (TMGa), high purity deionized water, and silane (SiH4) as gallium, oxygen, and silicon precursors, respectively. N2 was used as carrier gas. Hall measurements revealed that films grown with a lower VI/III ratio had a dominant p-type conduction with room temperature mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and carrier concentrations up to ~1020 cm−3 for thinner layers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy suggested that the layers were mainly κ phase. Microstrip field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using 2D p-type Ga2O3:Si, channels. They achieved a maximum drain current of 2.19 mA and an on/off ratio as high as ~108. A phenomenological model for the p-type conduction was also presented. As the first demonstration of a p-type Ga2O3, this work represents a significant advance which is state of the art, which would allow the fabrication of p-n junction based devices which could be smaller/thinner and bring both cost (more devices/wafer and less growth time) and operating speed (due to miniaturization) advantages. Moreover, the first scaling down to 2D device channels opens the prospect of faster devices and improved heat evacuation reprint
 
2.  
Low Dark Current Deep UV AlGaN Photodetectors on AlN Substrate
Low Dark Current Deep UV AlGaN Photodetectors on AlN Substrate
Lakshay Gautam, Junhee Lee, Gail Brown, Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1-5, June 2022, Art no. 4000205
We report high quality, low dark current, deep Ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN Photodetectors on AlN substrate. AlGaN based Photodetectors are grown and fabricated both on AlN and Sapphire substrates with the same epilayer structure. Subsequently, electrical characteristics of both photodetectors on AlN substrate and Sapphire are compared. A reduction of 4 orders of magnitude of dark current density is reported in UV detectors grown on AlN substrate with respect to Sapphire substrate. reprint
 
3.  
High Thermal Stability of κ-Ga2O3 Grown by MOCVD
High Thermal Stability of κ-Ga2O3 Grown by MOCVD
Junhee Lee, Honghyuk Kim, Lakshay Gautam and Manijeh Razeghi
Lee, J.; Kim, H.; Gautam, L.; Razeghi, M. High Thermal Stability of κ-Ga2O3 Grown by MOCVD. Crystals 2021, 11, 446. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/cryst11040446
We report a high thermal stability of kappa gallium oxide grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Kappa gallium oxide is widely known as a metastable polymorph transitioning its phase when subjected to a high temperature. Here, we show the kappa gallium oxide whose phase is stable in a high temperature annealing process at 1000 °C. These oxide films were grown at 690 °C under nitrogen carrier gas. The materials showed high electrical resistivity when doped with silicon, whereas the film conductivity was significantly improved when doped with both indium and silicon. This work provides a pathway to overcoming limitations for the advance in utilizing kappa gallium oxide possessing superior electrical characteristics. reprint
 
4.  
Highly Conductive Co-Doped Ga2O3Si-In Grown by MOCVD
Highly Conductive Co-Doped Ga2O3Si-In Grown by MOCVD
Junhee Lee, Honghyuk Kim, Lakshay Gautam and Manijeh Razeghi
Coatings 2021, 11(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11030287
We report a highly conductive gallium oxide doped with both silicon and indium grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. From a superlattice structure of indium oxide and gallium oxide doped with silicon, we obtained a highly conductive material with an electron hall mobility up to 150 cm2/V·s with the carrier concentration near 2 × 1017 cm−3. However, if not doped with silicon, both Ga2O3:In and Ga2O3 are highly resistive. Optical and structural characterization techniques such as X-ray, transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence, reveal no significant incorporation of indium into the superlattice materials, which suggests the indium plays a role of a surfactant passivating electron trapping defect levels. reprint
 
5.  
Study of Phase Transition in MOCVD Grown Ga2O3 from κ to β Phase by Ex Situ and In Situ Annealing
Study of Phase Transition in MOCVD Grown Ga2O3 from κ to β Phase by Ex Situ and In Situ Annealing
Junhee Lee, Honghyuk Kim, Lakshay Gautam, Kun He, Xiaobing Hu, Vinayak P. Dravid and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 2021, 8, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ photonics8010017
We report the post-growth thermal annealing and the subsequent phase transition of Ga2O3 grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We demonstrated the post-growth thermal annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C under N2 ambience, by either in situ or ex situ thermal annealing, can induce phase transition from nominally metastable κ- to thermodynamically stable β-phase. This was analyzed by structural characterizations such as high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The highly resistive as-grown Ga2O3 epitaxial layer becomes conductive after annealing at 1000 °C. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in situ annealing can lead to a crack-free β-Ga2O3. reprint
 
6.  
Geiger-Mode Operation of AlGaN Avalanche Photodiodes at 255 nm
Geiger-Mode Operation of AlGaN Avalanche Photodiodes at 255 nm
Lakshay Gautam, Alexandre Guillaume Jaud, Junhee Lee, Gail J. Brown, Manijeh Razeghi
Published in: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics ( Volume: 57, Issue: 2, April 2021)
We report the Geiger mode operation of back-illuminated AlGaN avalanche photodiodes. The devices were fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination to leverage hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response was analyzed with a peak detection wavelength of 255 nm with an external quantum efficiency of ~14% at zero bias. Low-photon detection capabilities were demonstrated in devices with areas 25 μm×25 μm. Single photon detection efficiencies of ~5% were achieved. reprint
 
7.  
Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. reprint
 
8.  
Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
H.K. Lee, K.S. Chung, J.S. Yu and M. Razeghi
Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 206, p. 356-362-- February 1, 2009
We have theoretically investigated and compared the thermal characteristics of 10.6 μm InGaAs/InAlAs/InP buried heterostructure (BH) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with different heat-sinking configurations by a steady-state heat-transfer analysis. The heat-source densities were obtained from laser threshold power densities measured experimentally under room-temperature continuous-wave mode. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat-dissipation model was used to calculate the temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance (Gth) inside the device. For good thermal characteristics, the QCLs in the long-wavelength infrared region require the relatively narrow BH structure in combination with epilayer-down bonding due to thick active core/cladding layers and high insulator losses. The single-ridge BH structure results in slightly higher thermal conductance by 2-4% than the double-channel (DC) ridge BH structure. For W = 12 m with 5 μm thick electroplated Au, the single-ridge BH laser with epilayer-down bonding exhibited the highest Gth value of 201.9 W/K cm2, i.e. increased by nearly 36% with respect to the epilayer-up bonded DC ridge waveguide laser. This value is improved by 50% and 62% with respect to the single-ridge BH laser and DC ridge waveguide laser with W = 20 μm in the epilayer-up bonding scheme, respectively. reprint
 
9.  
Comparison of type-II superlattice and HgCdTe infrared detector technologies
Comparison of type-II superlattice and HgCdTe infrared detector technologies
Jagmohan Bajaj; Gerry Sullivan; Don Lee; Ed Aifer; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 65420B (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007
Performance of HgCdTe detector technology surpasses all others in the mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectrum. This technology is relatively mature with current effort focused on improving uniformity, and demonstrating increased focal plane array (FPA) functionality. Type-II superlattice (InAs-GaSb and related alloys) detector technology has seen rapid progress over the past few years. The merits of the superlattice material system rest on predictions of even higher performance than HgCdTe and of engineering advantages. While no one has demonstrated Type-II superlattice detectors with performance superior to HgCdTe detectors, the difference in performance between these two technologies is decreasing. In this paper, we review the status and highlight relative merits of both HgCdTe and Type-II superlattice based detector technologies. reprint
 
10.  Comparison of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 340 nm grown on GaN substrate and sapphire
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, S.R. Darvish, H. Zhang, P. Kung, M. Razeghi, S.K. Lee and J.Y. Han
Applied Physics Letters, 81 (12)-- September 16, 2002
Based on AlInGaN/AlInGaN multiquantum wells, we compare properties of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission at 340 nm grown on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown GaN substrate and on sapphire. For the LED grown on GaN substrate, a differential resistance as low as 13 Ω and an output power of more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the same structure grown on sapphire are achieved. Due to higher thermal conductivity of GaN, output power of the LEDs saturates at higher injection currents compared to the devices grown on sapphire. reprint
 
11.  Novel Sb-based Materials for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
-- December 1, 2000
 
12.  Tl incorporation in InSb and lattice contraction of In1-xTlxSb
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (3)-- January 17, 2000
Ternary In1−xTlxSb thin films are grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in the high In composition region. Infrared photoresponse spectra of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers show a clear shift toward a longer wavelength compared to that of InSb. Tl incorporation is confirmed by Auger electron spectroscopy. In contrast to the theoretical expectation, high resolution x-ray diffraction study reveals that the lattice of the In1−xTlxSb epilayers is contracted by the incorporation of Tl. As more Tl is incorporated, the lattice contraction is observed to increase gradually in the experimental range. A possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed. Our experimental results suggest that the Tl incorporation behavior in In1−xTlxSb differs from that of other group III impurities in III antimonides. reprint
 
13.  Exploration of Novel InSbBi Alloy for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
 
14.  Novel InTlSb Alloy for Uncooled Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
 
15.  AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodiodes on Sapphire Substrates
D. Walker, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, I.H. Lee, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1-xN p-i-n photodiodes (0.05 ≤ to X ≤ 0.30) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible-rejection of about four orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 350 nm to 291 nm. They also exhibit a constant responsivity for five decades (30 mW/m² to 1 kW/m²) of optical power density. Using capacitance measurements, the values for the acceptor concentration in the p-AlxGa1-xN region and the unintentional donor concentration in the intrinsic region are found. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. reprint
 
16.  Schottky MSM Photodetectors on GaN Films Grown on Sapphire by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
P. Kung, D. Walker, P. Sandvik, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, I.H. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the growth and characterization of Schottky based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN films. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN was carried out on basal plane sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and exhibited lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates. The spectral responsivity, the dependence on bias voltage, on incident optical power, and the time response of these photodetectors have been characterized. Two detector orientations were investigated: one with the interdigitated finger pattern parallel and the other perpendicular to the underlying SiOx mask stripes. reprint
 
17.  Growth of InAsSb Alloys on GaAs and Si Substrates for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.D. Kim, H. Mohseni, J.S. Wojkowski, J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
In this paper, we report on the growth and characterization of InAsSb alloys on GaAs and Si substrates for uncooled infrared photodetector applications. The fabrication and characterization of photodetectors from the grown layers are also reported. The photovoltaic and photoconductive devices were grown on (100) GaAs and Si substrates, respectively, using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The composition of InAs>sub>1-xSbx layers was 0.95 in both cases and cut-off wavelength of 7-8 μm has been obtained. At 300 K, the photovoltaic detectors on GaAs substrates resulted in a sharp cut-off wavelength of 7.5 μm with a peak responsivity as high as 0.32 V/W at 6.5 micrometer. For the photoconductive detectors on Si substrates, cut-off wavelength of 8 μm has been observed with a responsivity of 6.3x10-2 V/W at 7 μm under an electric field of 420 V/m. reprint
 
18.  Band-gap narrowing and potential fluctuation in Si-doped GaN
I.H. Lee, J.J. Lee, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (1)-- January 4, 1999
We investigate the optical properties of two sets of Si-doped GaN epitaxial layers with different degree of compensation. The electron concentration dependence of the band-gap energy measured by photoluminescence is interpreted as band-gap narrowing effect and evaluated by a simple relation. The photoluminescence peak positions of heavily compensated samples are shifted downward with respect to those of moderately compensated samples, and the down shift becomes larger at higher electron density. Based on analysis of photoluminescence spectra, these prominent behaviors are accounted for by band-edge potential fluctuation associated with inhomogeneous residual impurities. reprint
 
19.  Uncooled long-wavelength infrared photodetectors using narrow bandgap semiconductors
M. Razeghi, J. Wojkowski, J.D. Kim, H. Mohseni and J.J. Lee
-- October 12, 1998
 
20.  Room temperature operation of 8-12 μm InSbBi infrared photodetectors on GaAs substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 73 (5)-- August 3, 1998
We report the room temperature operation of 8–12 μm InSbBi long-wavelength infrared photodetectors. The InSbBi/InSb heterostructures were grown on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The voltage responsivity at 10.6 μm was about 1.9 mV/W at room temperature and the corresponding Johnson noise limited detectivity was estimated to be about 1.2×106 cm·Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime derived from the voltage dependent responsivity measurements was about 0.7 ns. reprint
 
21.  Electrical Transport Properties of Highly Doped N-type GaN Epilayers
H.J. Lee, M.G. Cheong, E.K. Suh, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998
Temperature-dependent Hall-effects in MOCVD-grown Si-doped GaN epilayers were measured as a function of temperature in the range 10-800 K. The results were satisfactorily analyzed in terms of a two-band model including the (Gamma) and impurity bands at lower temperatures than room. The (Gamma) band electrons are dominant only high temperatures. The ionized impurity scattering is the most important in the (Gamma) band except at very high temperatures. reprint
 
22.  Exploration of InSbBi for uncooled long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 1998
 
23.  Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors Based on InSbBi Grown on GaAs Substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (16)-- October 20, 1997
We demonstrate the operation of InSbBi infrared photoconductive detectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The fabricated photodetector showed a cutoff wavelength of 7.7 μm at 77 K. The responsivity of the InSbBi photodetector at 7 μm was about 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The corresponding Johnson-noise limited detectivity was 4.7×108  cm· Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime was estimated to be about 86 ns from the voltage-dependent responsivity measurements. reprint
 
24.  Schottky barrier heights and conduction-band offsets of In1-xGaxAs1-yPy lattice matched to GaAs
J.K. Lee, Y.H. Cho, B.D. Choe, K.S. Kim, H.I. Jeon, H. Lim and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (7)-- August 18, 1997
The Schottky barrier heights of Au/In1−xGaxAs1−yPy contacts have been determined as a function of y by the capacitance–voltage and temperature dependent current–voltage characteristics measurements. The barrier height is observed to increase as y is increased for both n- and p-type materials, with a more rapid increase for the p-type material. The compositional variation of the barrier heights for Au/n-In1−xGaxAs1−yPy is found to be identical to that of the conduction-band offsets in In1−xGaxAs1−yPy/GaAs heterojunctions. A possible cause of this phenomenon is also discussed. reprint
 
25.  Growth and characterization of InSbBi for long wavelength infrared photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 70 (24)-- June 16, 1997
The epitaxial growth of InSbBi ternary alloys by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is reported on. X-ray diffraction spectra showed well resolved peaks of InSbBi and InSb films. Bi incorporation was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Photoresponse spectrum up to 9.3 μm which corresponds to 0.13 eV energy band gap has been measured in a sample with Bi composition of 5.8 at.% at 77 K. Electron mobility at room temperature ranges from 44 100 to 4910 cm²/V·s as Bi composition increases. reprint
 

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